Language/Spanish/Culture/Timeline-of-Spain

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HISTORY OF SPAIN

FIRST SETTLEMENTS[edit | edit source]

2000 ac Neolithic - Megalithic cultures of Los Millares (Almería) and Menorca
2000 ac First Iberian settlements in the south of the peninsula
1100 ac The Tartessos are the most advanced culture of the time
1100 ac The Phoenicians found Gadir
900 ac Indo-European Celtic peoples begin their incursion in the north of the peninsula
700 ac Greek colonization. The first settlements will focus on the Levantine coast (Empuries, Roses, ...)
500 ac The Carthaginians conquer the Mediterranean coast (Cartagena, Alicante, ...)

SPAIN[edit | edit source]

218 ac II Punic War. The peninsula becomes a battlefield between Romans and Carthaginians
209 ac Beginning of the great conquest of Spain by Rome
206 ac Hispania becomes a Roman province
133 ac The inhabitants of Numancia prefer to die burned by the flames of the city to surrender to Scipio Emiliano
25 ac Hispania is totally submitted to Rome after the Cantabrian conquest by Augustus
62 Apostle Paul's trip to Hispania, thus beginning the spread of Christianity in the peninsula
98 Beginning of the government of Trajan
264 Invasion of Spain by Franks and Suevi

VISIGODES[edit | edit source]

410 The entry of the Visigoths as allies of Rome against the Suevi turns into a covert conquest.
568 Visigothic King Leovigild expels Roman officials
587 Recaredo, Leovigildo's heir, converts to Catholicism and will make this religion official two years later.
630 Completion of the dominance of the Byzantine empire on the peninsula

AL-ANDALUS[edit | edit source]

711 Muslim troops cross the Strait of Gibraltar and defeat the Visigoth king Don Rodrigo at the Battle of Guadalete
716 The Visigothic kingdom is conquered with little resistance so Spain becomes Al-Andalus and becomes an emirate of the Caliphate of Damascus
722 The resistance begins in Covadonga and Poitiers
756 Abderramán I breaks with Damascus, giving rise to the Emirate of Córdoba
929 Abderramán III creates the Caliphate of Córdoba, and with it Al-Andalus will reach the maximum splendor of the Arab occupation
1031 Disappearance of the Caliphate of Córdoba, giving rise to the Taifa Kingdoms
1212 The Christians achieve an important victory against the Almohads in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
1252 Alfonso X makes Toledo a benchmark for medieval culture
1462 Catalan Civil War (1462-1472). Supporters of John II fight against the bourgeoisie

CATHOLIC KINGS[edit | edit source]

1474 Catholic Monarchs, Isabel and Fernando (1474-1516)
1479 Joint Kingdom of Castile and Aragon
1479 Treaty of Alcaçova, Alfonso V of Portugal renounced his aspirations on Castile
1480 Establishment of the Court of the Inquisition
1492 The Catholic Monarchs complete the Reconquest with the taking of Granada (2/1/1492)
1492 Expulsion of the Jews
1492 Discovery of America (10/12/1492)
1512 Fernando II annexes Navarre to the Kingdom of Castile

HABSBURG[edit | edit source]

1519 Carlos I is crowned emperor of the Holy Empire, which involves Spain in endless wars
1571 Naval Battle of Lepanto - Don Juan of Austria, stepbrother of Felipe II, defeats the Turks
1588 Disaster of the Invincible Armada against England. The decline of Spain becomes more evident
1605 Publication of Don Quixote de la Mancha
1648 The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War, implies the loss of the Netherlands and the hegemony of France

BORBON[edit | edit source]

1700 With the death of Charles II, the Habsburg dynasty ends and the War of the Spanish Succession breaks out, in which France, England and Austria are involved.
1712 Royal Library - National
1713 The war ends. France imposes Felipe de Anjou (Felipe V), grandson of Louis XIV, as King of Spain. Treaty of Utrecht (Rock of Gibraltar)
1713 Promulgation of the Salic Law
1724 Louis I (he was only 9 months on the throne)
1746 Fernando VI (1746-59)
1749 Good Taste Academy
1752 Academy of Noble Arts of San Fernando
1759 Charles III (1759-88)
1763 Esquilache creates the National Lottery
1765 Peñaflorida: Basque Economic Society of Friends of the Country
1765 The representation of the autos sacramentales and the comedies of saint and magic is prohibited
1766 Shearing mutiny
1767 Expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain
1771 Grammar of the RAE
1773 Suspension of the Society of Jesus
1779 Siege of Gibraltar
1783 Abolition of the legal disgrace of work
1788 Carlos IV (1788-1808)
1799 Plan to reform the theaters in Madrid (Moratín, director)
1805 The English fleet under the command of Admiral Nelson, and the French-Spanish under the command of Admiral Villeneuve, face off at Cape Trafalgar (Cádiz).
1808 Mutiny of Aranjuez deposed Carlos IV
1808 Ferdinand VII declared king

BONAPARTE[edit | edit source]

1808 Napoleon gets Carlos IV and Fernando VII to abdicate in favor of José Bonaparte
1808 Popular uprising in Madrid (May 2) begins the War of Independence
1812 The Cortes of Cádiz: Liberal Constitution = guaranteed individual freedoms, popular sovereignty. It is the First Spanish Constitution (it has had 7)

BORBON[edit | edit source]

1814 Return of Ferdinand VII of France: annuls the Constitution and establishes an absolutist government
1820 Irrigation Statement. Liberal uprising against Fernando VII
1820 Liberal Triennium (1820-1823)
1823 Banishing of intellectuals
1823 Closure of the universities [The Ominous Decade 1823-1833]
1823 French invasion to restore Fernando VII [The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis]
1829 Wedding of Fernando VII with María Cristina de Borbón
1830 Fernando VII abolishes the Salic law
1832 Regency of María Cristina
1833 Ferdinand VII dies
1833 First Carlist War (1833-1839) [Don Carlos de Borbón vs. Isabel II]
1835 Decrees of confiscation of the assets of the Church by Mendizábal
1836 Uprising of sergeants in La Granja: restoration of the Constitution of Cádiz (1812)
1837 New Constitution
1839 End of the Carlist War (except Catalonia - 1840)
1840 Banishment of María Cristina
1840 Espartero Regency
1843 Uprising against Espartero
1843 Declared the age of majority of Elizabeth II
1844 The Civil Guard is organized
1845 New Constitution
1846 Elizabeth II marries Francisco de Asís
1846 Uprisings in Catalonia
1848 Revolutionary movements in Europe
1848 Second Carlist War (1848-1849)
1848 First Barcelona - Mataró Railway
1849 Gas lighting in Madrid
1850 Inauguration of the Royal Theater
1851 Compensation to the Church for confiscated assets
1855 The Progressive Biennium [another confiscation]
1856 Inauguration of the Teatro de la Zarzuela
1856 Narváez returns with a conservative government
1856 O'Donnell annuls the confiscation laws of 1855
1858 Liberal Union, new O'Donnell government, return the confiscation laws
1859 Moroccan War
1860 Victories in Ceuta and Tetouan
1860 Madrid expansion
1865 The Night of San Daniel [student riot]
1865 War with Peru
1866 Narváez dictatorship

REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD[edit | edit source]

1868 Revolution against Elizabeth II [exiled to France on September 30]

SAVOY[edit | edit source]

1870 Election of Amadeus I (of Savoy) as king
1872 Third Carlist War (1872-1876)
1873 Resignation of Amadeo II

FIRST REPUBLIC[edit | edit source]

1873 Proclamation of the First Republic

BORBON[edit | edit source]

1874 Restoration of the Bourbon Monarchy with Alfonso XII [son of Elizabeth II]
1876 New Constitution and a "Municipal Law"
1879 Marriage of Alfonso XII with María Cristina of Hapsburgo-Lorena
1880 The peaceful turn of governments between conservatives and liberals begins
1883 New Press Law
1885 Regency of María Cristina
1886 Economic crisis and worker strike
1887 Associations Law allows the creation of labor unions
1888 Foundation of the General Union of Workers (UGT) and the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE)
1890 New electoral law restores universal suffrage
1893 Anarchist attacks (Bomba del Liceo de Barcelona)
1894 Marrakesh Convention ends the War of Melilla
1897 Assassination of Cánovas by the anarchists
1898 War with America
1898 Loss of the last imperialist colonies. Paris treaty
1902 Coming of age of Alfonso XIII
1902 Altos Hornos de Vizcaya Foundation
1904 Sundays rest is decreed for workers
1909 Beginning of the Moroccan War
1909 General strike in Barcelona [THE TRAGIC WEEK]
1911 General strikes protesting the war in Morocco
1911 CNT [National Labor Confederation] Foundation
1912 Assassination of Canalejas
1912 End of match rotation
1914 World War I [neutrality of Spain]
1917 Revolutionary general strike in Spain
1921 Troops fighting in Morocco suffer from Anual disaster
1923 Coup d'état by Miguel Primo de Rivera
1927 Pacification in Morocco
1927 Tricentennial of Góngora's death produces a neo-baroque interest in poetry: The Generation of 27

SECOND REPUBLIC[edit | edit source]

1931 April 12 the Second Republic is declared
1931 Burning of convents in Madrid
1932 Statement of General Sanjurjo
1932 Autonomy of Catalonia
1932 Catalan anarchist agitation
1932 The Society of Jesus is dissolved
1933 Foundation of the Spanish Falange by José Antonio Primo de Rivera
1933 Anarchist revolution in Casas Viejas
1934 The CEDA [Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights] forms a government
1934 Merger of the Spanish Falange and the JONS [National-Syndicalist Offensive Boards]
1934 Revolutionary movements in Catalonia and Asturias
1936 Popular Front wins elections

CIVIL WAR[edit | edit source]

1936 Uprising of General Francisco Franco on July 18 - CIVIL WAR begins
1936 Shooting of José Antonio Primo de Rivera [November 20]. Assassinated Lorca and Maeztu
1936 Entry of the International Brigades into the Civil War
1937 Bombardment of Guernica
1938 The Battle of the Ebro
1939 End of the Civil War on April 1

FASCIST DICTATORSHIP[edit | edit source]

1939 Government of General Franco (1939-1975)
1941 Alfonso XIII dies
1941 Creation of the RENFE [National Network of Spanish Railways]
1942 Creation of the Spanish Courts
1945 End of World War II
1945 Spain rejected by the UN [United Nations Organization]
1947 The Succession Law confirms Spain as a monarchy, after Franco's death
1951 Creation of the Ministry of Information and Tourism
1953 Economic and military agreements with the United States
1955 Entry of Spain into the UN
1955 SEAT's first factory
1956 The Spanish protectorate over Morocco ends
1958 Spain grants Equatorial Guinea its independence
1962 Spain requests entry into the Common Market
1962 Creation of Workers Commissions
1967 Organic Law of the State
1970 Proclamation of Don Juan Carlos de Borbón, Prince of Asturias
1970 trial against Etarra militants
1973 Assassination of the head of government, Luis Carrero Blanco, by ETA
1975 DEATH OF FRANCISCO FRANCO

RESTORATION OF DEMOCRACY[edit | edit source]

1975 JUAN CARLOS I, KING OF SPAIN
1975 Adolfo Suárez appointed president of the government by the king
1975 Amnesty for political prisoners granted by the king
1975 Declared as official languages ​​Catalan, Basque and Galician
1977 Legalization of political parties, including the PCE [Spanish Communist Party]
1977 Trade union legalization
1977 General elections: Adolfo Suárez, leader of the UCD [Union of the Democratic Center] wins
1978 NEW CONSTITUTION
nineteen eighty one Suárez resigns and Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo succeeds him as president of the government
nineteen eighty one Coup attempt by members of the Civil Guard commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero [February 23]
nineteen eighty one The coup is rejected by Juan Carlos I, and millions of people demonstrate in the streets supporting democracy
nineteen eighty one The Divorce Law is approved
1982 The PSOE [SPANISH OBERO SOCIALIST PARTY] wins in general elections, with Felipe González as head of government
1982 The transition to democracy is considered complete
1982 The border with Gibraltar opens for the first time since 1969
1985 Approval of the Abortion Decriminalization Law
1986 Spain approves its entry into NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization]
1986 New triumph in the legislative elections for the PSOE
1989 In the general elections, the PSOE gets half of the seats
1992 Spain is the host country of the Olympics [Barcelona], The Universal Exhibition [Seville], and the Cultural Capital of Europe [Madrid], with the celebrations of the fifth centenary of the discovery of America
1995 The Popular Party wins in the municipal elections
1996 The Popular Party wins in the general elections and José María Aznar is the new president of the government
2000 Absolute majority for the PP in the legislative elections
2002 The Euro enters into force as the single European currency
2004 (11-M) Terrorist attack in Madrid causes 200 victims and more than 1800 injured. The government initially blames the terrorist group ETA, but later it is proven that it is the work of Al-Qaeda
2004 The PSOE wins the general elections, and its general secretary José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero becomes president

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