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Hebrew Language Hebrew Culture: Israel Timeline

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Historical Timeline for Israel - A chronology of key events
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Israel Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • November 29, 1947: The UN adopts a plan to divide Palestine into two independent states, one Jewish and one Arab. Jerusalem is placed under international regime.
  • May 14, 1948: at the end of the British Mandate on Palestine, David Ben Gurion, President of the Jewish National Council, proclaims the independence of the State of Israel. On the 15th, the first Israeli-Arab war broke out, the Arabs refusing the partition plan. Beginning of the Palestinian exodus. The fighting ended in 1949 with the Rhodes Agreements setting a demarcation line that would remain until 1967.
  • December 11, 1948: the United Nations General Assembly votes resolution 194 which provides for Palestinian refugees the right of return or compensation.
  • May 11, 1949: Israel becomes a member of the UN.
  • December 14, 1949: David Ben Gurion announces the transfer of the capital to Jerusalem.
  • April 24, 1950: The West Bank is annexed by King Abdullah of Jordan. Egypt controls the Gaza Strip.
  • October-November 1956: after the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Nasser, the second Israeli-Arab war is launched. At the end of 1956, the Israelis began to evacuate the Sinai. Israel regains its 1949 borders.
  • June 5/10, 1967: Israel starts the third Israeli-Arab war known as the "Six Days", and occupies the Sinai, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights.
  • November 22, 1967: the UN Security Council unanimously adopts resolution 242 which provides for the evacuation of "from" (or "from", according to the English version) occupied territories, in exchange for the recognition of all Near Eastern States.
  • September 5, 1972: A Palestinian commando kills eleven Israelis during the Olympic Games in Munich.
  • October 6/25, 1973: fourth Israeli-Arab war known as the "Yom Kippur War"; the Egyptian army entered occupied Sinai but had to withdraw. Israel signed a disengagement agreement with Syria in 1974 on the Golan, then in 1975 on Sinai with Egypt.
  • October 22, 1973: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 338 which calls for a ceasefire and negotiations.
  • November 22, 1974: The UN General Assembly recognizes the right of Palestinians to sovereignty and national independence.
  • May 17, 1977: The victory of the Likud (right) led by Menachem Begin in the legislative elections puts an end to 30 years of Labor power in Israel. On August 14, the new government extended Israeli legislation to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
  • 19/21 November 1977: historic visit to Jerusalem by Egyptian President Anouar el Sadat who, in front of the Knesset (parliament), proposes a just and lasting peace in the whole region.
  • March 14, 1978: in response to a Palestinian raid, the Israeli army intervenes in southern Lebanon and sets up a "safety belt".
  • September 17, 1978: under the aegis of American President Jimmy Carter, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anouar el Sadate commit to signing a peace treaty at Camp David (United States).
  • March 26, 1979: signature in Washington of the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.
  • July 30, 1980: The Knesset declares that "reunified" Jerusalem becomes the capital of the State of Israel.
  • December 14, 1981: The Knesset votes to annex the Golan Heights.
  • October 6, 1981: assassination, in Cairo, of President Sadat by an Islamist commando.
  • April 25, 1982: Egypt recovers all of Sinai, with the exception of the Taba enclave which will be returned to it in March 1989.
  • June 6, 1982: the Israeli army invades Lebanon - operation "Peace in Galilee" - and drives out from Beirut the Palestinian organizations, including the Palestine Liberation Organization, the PLO, created in 1964.
  • September 14, 1982: assassination in Beirut of Lebanese President Bechir Gemayel. The Israelis enter West Beirut. Massacre of civilians by Christian militias in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila, with the passive complicity of Tsahal, the Israeli army.
  • June 1985: end of the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon with the exception of a "security zone" in the south of the country.
  • December 9, 1987: start of the Intifada (uprising in Arabic) in the occupied territories, which lasted until 1993, causing 1,300 victims on the Palestinian side and 150 among the Israelis.
  • November 15, 1988: in Algiers, the Palestinian National Council (parliament in exile) proclaims the independent Palestinian state and accepts UN resolutions 242 and 338, thus implicitly recognizing the existence of Israel. In December, before the UN in Geneva, Yasser Arafat, head of the PLO, recognizes Israel's right to live in peace, and declares that he completely renounces terrorism.
  • October 30, 1991: opening in Madrid (Spain) of a peace conference. Israelis, Palestinians, Jordanians and Syrians meet under the co-sponsorship of George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • June 23, 1992: The Labor Party wins the legislative elections.
  • August 1992: The government of Itzhak Rabin announces its intention to repeal the law prohibiting contact between Israel and the PLO, to suspend colonization and to establish an autonomy regime in the Occupied Territories.
  • September 13, 1993: Israel and the PLO sign in Washington an agreement in principle ("Oslo I") on transitional Palestinian autonomy for five years. Israeli Prime Minister Itzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat exchange a historic handshake.
  • February 25, 1994: Jewish extremist Baruch Goldstein slaughters 29 praying Palestinians at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron.
  • May 4, 1994: Cairo agreement on the autonomy of the Gaza Strip and the city of Jericho (West Bank). The Palestinian Authority settles in the newly autonomous areas.
  • October 26, 1994: signing of a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan.
  • November 4, 1995: Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish extremist opposed to the peace accords, Yigal Amir. Shimon Pérès succeeds him as head of government.
  • 1996
    • April: in reaction to Hezbollah fire on the Galilee, Tsahal launches Operation Grapes of Wrath in southern Lebanon, which killed more than 170 people, mostly civilians.
    • February 23: signing of a military agreement with Turkey.
    • May 29: The Israelis elect as Prime Minister the leader of the nationalist right, Benyamin Netanyahu, opposed to the Oslo accords and who calls into question the principle of the exchange of the Occupied Territories for peace.
    • August 2: Israel lifts the partial freeze on colonization, decreed by the Labor government of Itzhak Rabin in 1992.
    • September 24: Israel's opening of a tunnel under the mosque esplanade in Jerusalem provokes clashes between the Israeli army and Palestinian demonstrators which kill more than 70.
  • 1997
    • November 30: Israel accepts the principle of a limited withdrawal from the West Bank (without fixing the extent or the date), accompanied by draconian conditions. The Israeli press speaks of 6 to 8% of evacuated territories.
  • 1998
    • January 14: The government announces that it will keep large parts of the West Bank under its control, even in the event of a peace agreement with the Palestinians.
    • June 21: despite criticism from the United States and the European Union, the Israeli government decides to create a Jerusalem super-municipality - which thus doubles in size - encompassing several West Bank settlements.
    • October 23: Arafat and Netanyahu sign at Wye Plantation (United States) an agreement intended to break the impasse of the peace process: Israel will transfer in three stages an additional 13% of the territory of the West Bank still under its control to the administration Palestinian.
    • December 27: The Knesset votes in favor of early elections.
  • 1999
    • February-March: The question of withdrawal from South Lebanon dominates the electoral debate, after a military escalation in the area occupied by Israel which caused the death of an Israeli general.
    • May 17: The Israelis elect Ehud Barak as Prime Minister. He will officially take up his post on July 7.
    • June 24-25: Outgoing Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu bombs civilian targets near Beirut, in eastern and southern Lebanon, in retaliation for rocket attacks against northern Israel by Hezbollah.
    • September 4: the signing in Sharm el Sheikh (Egypt) of an agreement setting the dates for Israeli withdrawals from the West Bank (provided for by the Wye Plantation agreement but not implemented), relaunches the peace process.
  • 2000
    • March 21: With a further withdrawal of the Israeli army from 6.1% of the West Bank, the Palestinian Authority now partially or totally controls 40% of the territory.
    • May: after 22 years of occupation, the Israeli army withdrew from southern Lebanon in a hurry.
    • July 11-25: failure of the Israeli-Palestinian summit at Camp David (Maryland). No agreement is concluded between the two parties.
    • September 28: The visit of Likud leader Ariel Sharon to the Esplanade des Mosques (East Jerusalem), Islam's third holiest site, provokes violent clashes in Jerusalem, triggering an uprising in the Palestinian territories, the al-Aqsa intifada which will last until 2005 and will kill more than 4,700 people. See the detailed chronology of the second intifada (2000-2005)
    • November 28: Parliament votes in favor of early elections.
  • 2001
    • January 21: Palestinians and Israelis begin marathon negotiations in Taba (Egypt) to try to reach a peace agreement within ten days.
    • January 27: Israel and the Palestinians say they have made serious progress in Taba. Believing impossible to reach an agreement before the election of the head of government on February 6, Ehud Barak decides to suspend negotiations.
    • February 6: Ariel Sharon is elected prime minister. He formed a cabinet of national union with the Laborists and the Shass, an ultra-Orthodox Sephardic party.
    • May 4: the "Mitchell Commission", charged by the international community to determine the origins of the Intifada, submits a report which calls for the freezing of colonization and the end of violence.
    • October 17: Israeli Minister of Tourism Rehavam Zeevi is assassinated by members of the PFLP.
    • October 18-21: In retaliation for the assassination of Rehavam Zeevi, the Israeli army invades the suburbs of six Palestinian-controlled towns in the West Bank, including Ramallah, Jenin and Bethlehem.
    • December: in retaliation for a series of suicide bombings (26 Israelis killed), Israel launches raids of unprecedented scale in the Palestinian territories. Yasser Arafat, declared "offside" by Ariel Sharon, can no longer leave Ramallah, surrounded by Tsahal.
    • 2002
    • February: Saudi Arabia proposes for the first time a normalization of its diplomatic relations with Israel, in the event of Israel's withdrawal from all the occupied territories. The Saudi plan will be adopted by an Arab summit in March.
    • April: the Hebrew state launches an offensive in the occupied territories, called "defensive rampart". More than 250 Palestinians are killed; Mouqataa, Arafat's headquarters in Ramallah, is partially destroyed.
    • April 15: Marwan Barghouti, the leader of Fatah in the West Bank, is captured by the Israeli army.
    • June 16: Israel launches construction of a separation wall along the "Green Line" that separates Israel from the West Bank.
    • September 17: development of a "road map", a step-by-step plan to lead by 2005 to the creation of a Palestinian state, by the Middle East quartet (United States, Russia, European Union and United).
    • September 24: The UN Security Council votes a resolution calling for the lifting of the siege of Arafat's headquarters. A few days later, the Tsahal withdrew from the Mouqataa under pressure from the United States. But Arafat is still being held in the ruins of his headquarters.
    • October 30: the six Labor ministers resign. Ariel Sharon announces his intention to start negotiations with the far right.
    • November 5: Ariel Sharon announces the dissolution of the Knesset.
  • 2003
    • January 28: Likud wins legislative elections; the parties of the left register a crushing defeat.
    • February 27: Ariel Sharon allies with the Shinouï (secular), the National Religious Party and the National Union (far-right), to form a government.
    • April 30: the "road map", drawn up by the "quartet" on the Middle East, is handed over to the Israeli Prime Minister and to the Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas. The document calls for a freeze on Israeli settlement and an end to the violence.
    • September 6: Ami Ayalon, former head of Shin Beth (Israeli internal security) and Sari Nusseibeh, Palestinian president of al-Quds University, present a peace plan to the European Parliament. The project called "The Voice of the People" recognizes the existence of "two states for two peoples" as the basis for any settlement of the conflict.
    • October 12: around fifty Israeli and Palestinian intellectuals, pacifists and politicians write a symbolic pact in Jordan, called the "Geneva Initiative", to relaunch peace negotiations.
  • 2004
    • February 2: Ariel Sharon announces his intention to dismantle all the settlements in the Gaza Strip (comprising a total of 7,500 inhabitants).
    • March 22: The founder of Hamas ("Islamic resistance movement"), Sheikh Yassin, is assassinated in a raid carried out by Israeli helicopters in Gaza.
    • April 17: The new head of Hamas, Abdelaziz al-Rantissi, is killed in an Israeli airstrike in Gaza.
    • May 14-25: In retaliation for a series of Palestinian attacks in Rafah, in the southern Gaza Strip, the IDF launches an operation to destroy Palestinian homes, in order to expand the buffer zone along the border with the 'Egypt. 43 Palestinians are killed during this operation.
    • June 6: The Israeli cabinet adopts the principle of a withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, which should be completed at the end of 2005.
    • July 9: The International Court of Justice (ICJ) declares the separation wall in the West Bank illegal and calls for its dismantling.
    • July 20: The UN General Assembly overwhelmingly adopts a resolution demanding that the Jewish state partially dismantle the separation wall in the West Bank.
    • September 28: Israel launches a vast operation dubbed "Day of Penance" on the northern Gaza Strip, to put an end to Palestinian rocket fire into Israeli territory. It will kill 129 people in 18 days.
    • October 7: Three attacks in Egyptian seaside resorts in Sinai, very popular with Israeli tourists, claim 34 victims, including 13 Israelis.
    • October 26: The Knesset adopts the plan to withdraw from Gaza.
    • November 11: death of Yasser Arafat in Paris.
    • December 17: Likud and Labor reach an agreement on a government of national unity. Labor gets Shimon Peres to be seen as number 2 in the coalition cabinet.
  • 2005
    • January 9: Palestinian elections; Mahmoud Abbas, is elected head of the Palestinian Authority.
    • January 22: three Palestinian armed groups declare their readiness for a conditional ceasefire with Israel.
    • January 26: Tsahal renounces "targeted liquidation" operations targeting Palestinian activists in areas where Palestinian police provide calm and security.
    • February 8: summit between Ariel Sharon and Mahmoud Abbas in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. They announce the end of violence between Israel and the Palestinians. Jordan and Egypt decide the return of their ambassador to Israel, after more than four years of absence decided due to the repression of the intifada.
    • August 7: the government gives the green light to the withdrawal of a first group of settlements from the Gaza Strip despite the resignation of the Minister of Finance, Benjamin Netanyahu, opposed to this plan.
    • August 22: end of the evacuation of settlers from Gaza.
    • November 9: Amir Peretz, head of the Histadrout trade union center, is elected head of the Labor Party. He announces the party's withdrawal from the government coalition.
    • November 21: Ariel Sharon calls for the dissolution of parliament and leaves Likud; he created a new centrist party, Kadima (Forward).
    • November 30: Shimon Pérès announces that he is leaving the Labor Party and supports the new formation of Ariel Sharon.
    • December 20: Benyamin Netanyahu succeeds Ariel Sharon at the head of Likud.
  • 2006
    • January 4: Ariel Sharon is hospitalized following a stroke. Ehud Olmert, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance succeeds him.
    • January 25: Hamas wins an absolute majority in the Palestinian legislative elections.
    • February 19: the day after the new Palestinian parliament dominated by Hamas is sworn in, the Israeli government decides on economic sanctions against the Palestinian Authority.
    • March 28: legislative elections; the Kadima party led by Ehud Olmert, wins a narrow victory.
    • June 25: A Palestinian commando captures an Israeli soldier, Gilad Shalit, in an attack on a military post on the edge of the Gaza Strip.
    • June 28: Israel launches Operation "Summer Rains", a vast military offensive in the Gaza Strip. many infrastructures are destroyed; 64 Hamas officials including 8 ministers and 26 deputies were arrested.
    • July 5: Major Israeli ground offensive in the northern Gaza Strip.
    • July 12: the Israeli army launches a vast air and sea offensive on Lebanon, after the kidnapping by Hezbollah at its border of two soldiers and the death of eight others. Israel bombs Beirut and South Lebanon. Hezbollah retaliates with rocket fire at northern Israel. Israel imposes an air and sea blockade on Lebanon.
    • August 2: the Security Council adopts resolution 1701 calling for the cessation of hostilities in Lebanon. Lebanon and then Israel approve the resolution. Hezbollah is committed to ceasing all acts of hostility. The resolution provides for providing additional resources and personnel to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), which will have the mission of supporting the Lebanese armed force of 15,000 men that the government has committed to deploying in Lebanon. -South.
    • August 14: entry into force of the cessation of hostilities between Israel and Hezbollah. In one month, the war left nearly 1,200 dead and 900,000 displaced in Lebanon; 150 dead and 400,000 displaced in Israel.
    • September 5: The Parliament's Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission recommends the creation of a state commission of inquiry into the failures of the war launched in Lebanon.
    • October 30: The Prime Minister widens his coalition to include the Russian-speaking far-right Israel Beitenou party, led by Avigdor Lieberman.
    • November: Called "Autumn Clouds", an Israeli ground and air offensive in the Gaza Strip, as well as the incursions carried out during this period in the West Bank, cause the death of nearly 60 Palestinians.
  • 2007
    • February: suspension of work launched at the foot of the esplanade of the Mosques in Jerusalem, which caused tensions among the Palestinians and in the Muslim world.
    • April 30: the interim report of the commission of inquiry on the war in Lebanon ("Winograd commission"), calls into question the mismanagement of this conflict by the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, Amir Peretz and the chief of 'Staff, Dan Haloutz.
    • June: Hamas takes control of the entire territory of Gaza.
    • June 13: Former Prime Minister Ehud Barak replaces Amir Peretz, Minister of Defense, at the head of the Labor Party.
    • July 15: Investiture of Shimon Peres, elected President by the Knesset on June 13. He succeeds Moshe Katzav, suspended from his post in January 2007 due to his involvement in a case of rape and sexual harassment.
    • November 26-28: international conference in Annapolis (United States). Ehud Olmert and Mahmoud Abbas commit to concluding a peace treaty before the end of 2008.
  • 2008
    • February-March: Israeli army offensive against the Gaza Strip in an attempt to put an end to rocket fire from Palestinian territory. It causes the death of nearly 130 Palestinians, without putting an end to the shooting by Hamas.
    • June 19: After months of Egyptian mediation, a ceasefire is concluded between Israel and Hamas in the Gaza Strip.
    • July 30: challenged by the courts for corruption cases, Ehud Olmert announces his withdrawal from power in September.
    • September 22: Tzipi Livni, Minister of Foreign Affairs, who won the Kadima party primaries, is responsible for forming a government.
    • October 26: Tzipi Livni, calls for the holding of early elections after failing to form a government coalition.
    • December 14: Khaled Mechaal, exiled Hamas leader, announces that the truce with Israel will "not be renewed" on December 19 due to the continued blockade of the Gaza Strip.
    • December 20: The Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades, an armed wing of Hamas, claim responsibility for mortar shell fire at Israel.
    • December 27: Israel launches a massive air attack on the Gaza Strip, dubbed "Cast Lead".
  • 2009
    • January 3: start of an Israeli ground offensive in Gaza.
    • January 17: Israel announces a ceasefire. The next day, Hamas also decreed a one-week truce for the Israeli army to withdraw from the Gaza Strip. In three weeks, the Israeli offensive left 1,330 Palestinians dead, including more than 430 children, and 5,450 injured, according to Palestinian medical services. On the Israeli side, 10 soldiers and 3 civilians perished, according to official figures. A UN expert refers to "systematic war crimes".
    • January 22: the new American president Barack Obama appoints a special envoy for the Middle East, George Mitchell.
    • February 10: Kadima's short victory in the early parliamentary elections (28 seats), ahead of Benyamin Netanyahu's Likud (27 seats), the secular far-right Israel Beiteinou party (15 seats) and the Labor party (13 seats).
    • February 19: Benyamin Netanyahu is tasked with forming a government.
    • March 15: Likud concludes a coalition agreement with Israel Beiteinou which obtains the Foreign Ministry for its leader Avigdor Lieberman.
    • March 23: A UN expert calls for an investigation into the Israeli offensive against the Gaza Strip in January which could constitute a "war crime of the greatest magnitude".
    • September 7: on the eve of a planned mission by US special envoy George Mitchell, Israel announces the construction of new settlements.
    • September 15: Israel used disproportionate force and violated international humanitarian law during its offensive in the Gaza Strip the previous winter, according to a UN report, led by South African judge Richard Goldstone.
    • October 31: Visiting Jerusalem, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton gives up making the settlement freeze a condition for resuming the Israeli-Palestinian dialogue.
    • November 5: The UN General Assembly adopts a resolution giving Israel and the Palestinians three months to open independent investigations into allegations of war crimes committed during the Gaza conflict the previous winter.
    • December 9: after decreeing on November 25 a partial freeze of ten months of colonization in the West Bank, the Prime Minister decides to include settlements among the priority investment zones.
  • 2010
    • January 10: Tel Aviv decides to build a security fence on its border with Egypt.
    • January 19: assassination in Dubai of a Hamas military leader. He is part of a long list of targeted assassinations.
    • March 9: Israel announces the construction of 1,600 new homes in East Jerusalem, during a visit by US Vice President Joe Biden supposed to relaunch the peace process.
    • May 31: nine people are killed in the boarding of an international flotilla by an Israeli commando. The latter was channeling pro-Palestinian militants and humanitarian aid to Gaza, under Israeli blockade.
    • June 14: The Supreme Court rules against the principle of equality granting students of Talmudic schools a system of financial advantages, discriminatory for secular students.
    • June 20: Under international pressure, Israel announces the relaxation of the embargo on Gaza, on goods "for civilian use". Construction materials, likely to be used for "military purposes", remain under embargo.
    • September 2: resumption of direct peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians, interrupted since December 2008. They open "without conditions", a position desired by Israel and accepted by Mahmoud Abbas who, under American pressure, gave up demanding to Israel first, the acceptance of a Palestinian state within the framework of the 1967 borders and the total cessation of colonization in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
    • September 27: Israel lets expire its moratorium on colonization in the West Bank, while the Palestinians demanded its extension to continue the "peace process".
    • October 10: Israel passes a controversial amendment on the allegiance to the Jewish state of candidates for Israeli citizenship.
    • A fire ravaged Mount Carmel on the outskirts of Haifa, killing 42 people.
    • December 7: the United States abandons the idea of ​​obtaining a freeze on colonization in the West Bank before relaunching negotiations.
    • December 30: ex-president Moshe Katzav is found guilty of rape after a trial lasting more than four years. He will be sentenced to seven years in prison in March 2011.
  • 2011
    • January: Defense Minister Ehud Barak leaves the Labor Party, whose "shift to the left" he denounces, to create a new political party.
    • June: Deadly incidents in the Golan Heights leave nearly 20 dead and many injured.
    • July-August: launched in protest against the rise in housing prices, a social movement mobilizing especially the middle classes agitates the country all summer.
    • October: soldier Gilad Shalit, held hostage by Hamas for 5 years, is released in exchange for Palestinian prisoners.
  • 2012
    • January: Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert is charged with corruption in connection with a real estate scandal while he was mayor of Jerusalem.
    • November: While rocket fire from Gaza has never ceased, the Israeli army launches Operation "Pillar of Defense" against Gaza. In eight days, from the 14th to the 21st, 174 Palestinians and 6 Israelis were killed, mostly civilians in both camps.
    • December: Indicted for fraud, the foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman, who had concluded an electoral alliance with the Prime Minister two months earlier, resigns.
  • 2013
    • January: the right-wing coalition led by Benjamin Netanyahu wins the early legislative elections. The poll is marked by the retreat of Likud and the breakthrough of the middle class candidate Yair Lapid.
    • March: inauguration of the government after laborious negotiations. Representatives of the settlers' lobby are present in force in the government.
    • July: Israel resumes, under the aegis of the United States, direct discussions with the Palestinians, frozen for three years.
  • July 8, 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict: The IDF launched a series of airstrikes against Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip.
  • December 6, 2017: United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel: U.S. President Donald Trump formally announces the United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
  • March 25, 2019: United States recognition of Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights: U.S. President Donald Trump signed a presidential proclamation to officially recognize Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights.[21]
  • 2021
    • 30 April: Meron stampede: The deadliest civil disaster in Israel's history.
    • May: Israel–Palestine crisis

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