From Polyglot Club WIKI

< Language‎ | Multiple-languages‎ | Culture
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There is a flaw of no “„” or “‚”. You can replace “÷” and “×” with them. Also, the positions of single and double quotation marks only benefit British people for not pressing Shift. You can exchange their positions, too.
There is a flaw of no “„” or “‚”. You can replace “÷” and “×” with them. Also, the positions of single and double quotation marks only benefit British people for not pressing Shift. You can exchange their positions, too.
In my modification, I've exchanged positions of “q” and “j”, “x” and “b”, according to [Letter frequency].
In my modification, I exchanged positions of “q” and “j”, “x” and “b”, according to [ letter frequency].
*[ Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator] for Windows;
*[ Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator] for Windows;

Revision as of 21:22, 30 June 2020

Best Free Services for Polyglots

If your English is not good, please find links with “!!”. Links with “!!!!” are the most important to improve your English. Also, go to here.

The Internet is a giant treasure. It provides so many free services.

An interesting list:

This page is updated from time to time, not frequently, not regularly.

It would be great if you pay a visit to every site on the list. Don't lose your curiosity.

Condensed version with services' names: Language/Multiple-languages/Culture/IRFP-in-brief.

If you want to do creative work to help others to learn languages and to know about cultures, please visit Language/Multiple-languages/Culture/Productivity-tools-for-polyglots.

If you see GitHub or GitLab links, please know that “Clone or download” on GitHub and the “download” icon on GitLab means to download the source code. Links to download built programs are elsewhere.

It is not recommended to put some banner like “featured in Polyglot Club” on your website, because this list is dynamic.

It is necessary to get to know about “media literacy”:

It is highly recommend to have privacy protection on. An open-source website on privacy:

Blue Light Filter


Filter for Linux and BSD. Windows version is experimental. It is open-source.


Filter for Android. It is open-source.


Filter for Windows 7 and newer versions. It is open-source.

Rest Reminder


It can lock your keyboard and mouse buttons when it is time. It is open-source.


It supports Windows, Linux, BSD and macOS. Fewer features than Workrave. It is open-source.

Self-Control Helper


Browser add-ons for blocking websites. It is open-source.


For Android. It is open-source.


Block websites for Mac. It is open-source.

Brain Trainer

Practise through mini-games, 3 random games everyday for free.

This is merely a little teaser, not something like Touhou Project.

Mini-games. It is open-source.

Dual n-back. It is open-source.

Meditation helper

For meditation. It is open-source.

Binaural beats. It is open-source.

Background noise. It is open-source.



This one supports a lot of languages in Latin script, but it means to learn typing again. It is worth it. You may have noticed that “Kolemak” is even better than Colemak. How to modify keyboards will be discussed below.

A better layout image.

Note that the download link on the home page is “Caps Lock Unchanged”. The idea of replacing Caps Lock with Backspace is great because of its convenience to press Backspace, but having it unchanged is generally better because it's punitive to press Backspace, urging you to make fewer misspellings.

There is a flaw of no “„” or “‚”. You can replace “÷” and “×” with them. Also, the positions of single and double quotation marks only benefit British people for not pressing Shift. You can exchange their positions, too.

In my modification, I exchanged positions of “q” and “j”, “x” and “b”, according to letter frequency.

For languages with other letters such as Ə and Ɔ, autocorrection (or called in another way: text replacement) is required.

People think it's uncomfortable to type HE with Colemak because it requires stretching the index finger and shrinking the middle finger. I type E with my ring finger in this case.


Based on French, giving consideration to European languages.

No English translation for this site, but it doesn't matter, because this keyboard is generally pre-installed in common operating systems. You just need to find it in the “French” section of keyboard settings.

This one is based on German keyboard, so you don't need to worry about lower quotation marks.

Its idea is 6 layers. But it may have trouble with your operating system. I suppose there could be 8 layers: 2 for Latin, 2 for Greek, 2 for Cyrillic, 2 for symbols.

But don't you think changing layers is the same work as changing input methods?

Variant of Colemak for typing Cyrillic. It is available as source code. It is pre-installed in some Linux distributions including Debian, but it might require some effort as mentioned in the section of changing keys in “Colemak”, to enable it. “Greek (Colemak)” is also available there. OK, my imaginary on Neo can be deprecated.


It is lightweight and supports many languages, with many keyboard layouts. But it has problems, such as poor plugins.



Typing tutor. It is open-source.


A place to train typing.



Keyboard shortcuts. They make the life a little easier.



It has many functions: hierarchy, progress, different views of the list. It is open-source.

A video about it.


A different to-do-list. It is open-source.



A desktop wiki. It is open-source.

A tutorial about it.


It supports hierarchy. It is open-source.

A video about it on Windows; a video about it on Linux.


It is privacy-focused. It is open-source. Can't insert images without payment.

Mind Map


Successful fork of the lack-of-update FreeMind. They are pretty much alike, but it claims to possess more features than FreeMind. Java is required. It is open-source.

A video about it; another video about it.

Hierarchical Spereadsheet


It combines mind map, spreadsheet and other forms of data. It is open-source.

A video about it.

International Phonetic Alphabet


The site of the maker. The full IPA chart can be downloaded here. There is also a link to an interactive IPA chart.


IPA and romanization transcriptions. Very detailed, but there is a limitation for each hour. Its “More Tools” is also noteworthy.

Transcription to IPA. It is open-source. It won't help if you don't know Python.

It only supports words, as is discussed. Somebody can develop a tool for sound change.



The best free online language courses. It is actually a collection of exercises instead of real teaching courses. It is also under criticism, from quality to method.

Don't neglect their other products.

This one has a lot of materials as well as other things.

Mainly courses of Foreign Service Institute, Defense Language Institute, Peace-Corps. FSI is initially aimed at middle-aged officials, so maybe not everyone likes it.

Some super cool courses. This is suggested by RomDasha.

A little site with useful basic courses of 5 languages with good design.

Grammar lessons.

Material of native American languages.

Books are mostly incomplete and in lack of update, but some are nearly completed or completed, not bad.

It is discontinued, but deserves a mention for quality. It is for beginners.

Only 3 languages, but still worth a mention for its quantity and maybe quality.

Linguistic Article

When you are confused about the grammar, or simply out of curiosity, you want to touch linguistics. This site can help, though few articles are free.

A list and a search engine of open-access Linguistic journals.

Open-access Linguistic journal by Elsevier.



Dictionary of pronunciation.


It recognizes speeches with the help of Google instantly. A similar service can be found at the “Listening” section.

It should be categorised into “Speech Recognition” section, but it's more convenient to use, so it's here.


Submit the recording and wait for the response. Supported languages are not many.

With this one, you can say you are “studying” pronunciation.

A big tutorial playlist.


Try not to hurt yourself when practicing.

There is another site that has an improved version of that. But I am not sure about its copyright affairs.



Offline flashcard platform. You can find its manual at “Docs” on the website. Content can be rendered in HTML and CSS. There are also add-ons for it. It is open-source.

Its community has some decks, but this is not mentioned at the home page.

Unfortunately, not free on iOS.

Looks like no one tells people how to export anki decks into spreadsheets. Let me do it:

  1. click on the cog of your deck, click on “Export”;
  2. in “Export from”, select “Notes in plain text (.txt)”;
  3. export;
  4. open the file in a spreadsheet program, which should be able to automatically recognise its separator “tab”.

If you want to batch rename files, there is a program to do it; there is a program that supports FreeBSD and Solaris. They are open-source.

There exists a successful collaboration: Untimate Geopraphy. Perhaps it can inspire more such projects.

If you are still confused, go to communities about Anki and find solution.


If your want a simple alternative to Anki, try this one. It is open-source.


Flashcards in high quality can be found. Some most popular languages have courses of 0-5k and 5k-8k words, or divided differently and still reach 8k. A few can be over 30k.

Though it is said to be memorizing words with “mems” (memes in many cases), the “mems” are actually not in good quality.

Its app is quite worse than the web version. On the app, you can't add other courses besides official ones, and the download for offline use always fails if the vocabulary is over 3k.

In the app, don't look at the candidates (including candidate letters) at first, to avoid getting hints from them.

You can import from a spreadsheet.


It is not so good at efficient memorization as Memrise. It is for having quizzes. But you can find specific practice such as reflexive verbs, weak nouns.

It even encourages you to copy other people's card decks and create your own variants, in case a good deck has flaws and the creator doesn't respond to it.

You can import from a spreadsheet.


Learn with cloze. It is effective, but sometimes it is just repeating the same point in different questions, also, synonyms not supported.


Four languages to learn, for lower intermediate learners (roughly telc B1). There is a trial automatically started after you register, so don't expect all features will continue if you don't pay after 48 hours.


Among its products, the mobile version of Context seems to be the most helpful: learn and practise new words with example sentences.


Similar to Reverso Context.


Learn vocabulary on lock screen.


It focuses on visual training, which has both advantages and disadvantages. Free users have to wait 10 hours for the next 5 min practice session.


Simply learn words and sentences.


It's pretty good for educating young polyglots.


Sentences from Tatoeba to practice. It is aesthetically same with Anki (I mean copy-paste). It is open-source.


Some basic vocabulary.


They may think “word of the day” is too inefficient, so do I. It is constantly being improved, but not satisfying for now. The response of a contact is quick and friendly.

Practice sentence translation through subtitles. Don't expect word-to-word translations.

A site with a different design.

Visual dictionary. No grammatical genders or pronunciation, suitable for revision.

A lot of languages has not been completed yet, without any notice. Also, look out for polyseme mistakes.

Word game for Android. It is open-source.

A great idea to learn a word each time you open a tab. Only for three languages. Only for beginners.

Frequency lists. Make use of it with programs that help to memorise, such as Anki.

If you seriously want to learn a language, and there are no ready-made free flashcards reaching the native level, and you don't want to spend money, this may be the most effective way to memorise words.


Test your proficiency.

There is only one set of test for each language. Don't search the meanings of the words you don't know, if you want to take this test again later.

For testing your vocabulary size.

There is only one set of test for each language. Don't search the meanings of the words you don't know, if you want to take this test again later.

Test your vocabulary size. It's faster and maybe not so accurate. The result is at an inconspicuous corner.



Numerous articles in many languages and they are usually proofed to read.

Don't forget to browse the “Category” to find specific contents.

Also take a look at its sister projects on Wikimedia.


Make Wikipedia and some other sites offline. It is open-source.

The largest collections of books in the public domain, mostly in English though.

List of book collections. Many links are available in “https” now but appear as “http” on this page.


RSS feeder. It is open-source.

If you don't know what RSS is, read this article.


Read and create flashcards to learn. The response of a contact is quick and friendly.


As what its domain name says, parallel text. Classical works.


Articles in many languages, with online dictionaries.

Find unfamiliar words in a document. Java is required. It is open-source.

It doesn't support Chinese, Japanese, Thai and Vietnamese, because words are not separated by spaces or a word is usually separated by one or more spaces in these languages.

Declaration: suggesting it is not for preaching.

The full Bible has been translated into at least 670 languages, more than double the number of languages of Wikipedia.

The site's counterpart in Islam is at Pakdata. Declaration: mentioning it is not for preaching.

Save the web page as a single file.

There is also a SingleFileZ, which can compress pages.

Reader for Android. It is open-source.

Reader for desktops. You can take notes with it. It is open-source.

This is a PHP project. The page design is very bad, but as a learned person, you should have sufficient patience to read the guide and follow it. It's a DIY, offline and free version of LingQ. It is open-source.

A video for its introduction; a video about its setup; a video about its more features.

There installation tutorial is not clear, and the reply on a common problem is responded impolitely.

LingQ is freemium, but it can't be recommended, for its unacceptable limitations on free users.


It is not for learning languages, but for how to write and read.

It is teaching about English, so something does not applies to some other languages.

Another online writing lab. A bit dumb but also good.



List of dictionaries.


Practical, no need to switch dictionaries, translations in many languages are shown together.


It is really completed.


It is completed, with example sentences of high quality. You can even find uncommon words with meanings of common words.


It is completed for several languages.


Terminology dictionary of European Union. That is to say, what you search should be a term.


It supports a lot of languages, citing results from several corpora. It is somehow messy and in many cases inaccurate, but if the dictionaries listed above have no result about a word, this one may help.


It supports several dictionaries in the free version, and also Lingoes in the paid Android version. No one would want to pay after knowing a link below. It is open-source.

You can search the word by selecting it and listen to Forvo pronunciation. You can also add dictionary websites.


Offline dictionaries. It is open-source.


Offline dictionaries and phrase books.


An offline collection of dictionaries. Discontinued.


Offline dictionaries by Alldict. Larger quantity and lower quality.

It's weird that there are fewer apps at the developer's page.


Offline dictionary with even larger quantity and lower quality.



The best translator by now. It also supports optical character recognition on mobile.

There is a video about how machine translation works.

There is a video about why machine translation makes mistakes.


It supports several languages that Google Translation doesn't support, but its quality is not so good as Google's.

Browser add-on for Google Translate. It is open-source.

Translate to multiple languages at one time. It is open-source.

Similar to Translatr, but it is powered by Microsoft.

Command-line translator from different sources. It is open-source.

It is open-source. Promising.

A video about it.



Conjugation and some declension.



Apps for practising genders in 4 languages. You can also estimate how long you can practice until your battery becomes empty.



Rules of writing numbers, more concise than Wikipedia's entries.


Generate a random sequence. You can practice reading them or train your listening with TTS.

Grammar Checker

It supports several languages but works well on the few. It is open-source.

A video about the rule editor.



To practice listening. Not very good-looking. Voices are from volunteers, the quality is not very good. It also has conjugation exercises.


Books read by volunteers.

News with some free transcripts, and the speed is slow.


Materials can become no-free after a period of time, but it's reasonable.

It doesn't mean that you can't see an archived lesson forever if you don't pay. They offer a random lesson each Thursday for free.


Listen to songs and fill in the blanks of lyrics.


Listen to recordings.


Turn audios into texts. A similar service can be found at the “Speaking” section. It is open-source.

It should be categorised into “Speech Recognition” section, but it's more convenient to use, so it's here.


Audios are free, books are paid.


Listening materials. It doesn't have transcripts but can search according to your level.


This is for editing audio files, but it can also do something else: record the playback from your computer, which means that you can record online stream radios.

There are a video about labeling, a video about pronunciation checking and a video about automatically splitting words from a vocabulary recording.

A video about tips for using Audacity.

It is open-source.


When you are playing games in the languages you are learning, it is often hard to focus on the voices and subtitles without failing your goals in the games. You can solve this problem by recording your gameplay with this program. It is open-source.

Listen and identify the language. It has been shut down, but it has links to two other sites in the same type. Verbling has this game, too.



A software to read texts. If you don't know how to get the voices, you can see Language/Multiple-languages/Culture/How-to-use-SR-and-TTS-on-Windows.


TTS For Android. It is open-source.


It is the most highly rated platform on Android.

Example Sentence


Example sentences in many languages. It is open-source.

If you want to translate, translate sentences with audio first, because the translations may appear on sites which provide translations of audio.


Search for example sentences of a word, with the Lingoes dictionary inserted. Many results are from Tatoeba.


Website for localisation. You can easily find parallel texts. It is open-source.

Search for parallel texts in subtitles.

Parse Tree

A tool to draw parse trees and have a better understanding of sentence structures. It is open-source.

A video about it.

A different one to draw parse trees. It is open-source.

Text Memorization


For memorizing text. Python is required.


Memorization with hints. It has some libraries of text samples. You can add your texts.

It is also useful for building the impressions of sentence structures.

Unfortunately, it doesn't support many scripts. The reasons are: 1. it does not recognize the punctuation of many scripts such as Arabic; 2. it does not recognize words in scripts in which words are not separated by spaces such as Han or some languages where a word have spaces inside it, such as Vietnamese.

Solutions are: 1. add punctuation according to Language/Multiple-languages/Grammar/Punctuation-of-many-languages; 2. add dictionaries of Chinese, Japanese, Thai, Vietnamese, etc. from Wiktionary or elsewhere. has the same problems.



It provides apps for both phrase and vocabulary, but I have categorized it in this one because it provides IPA in the apps of phrases.


It supports many languages, and it is detailed.


Actually a few more than 50 languages. You can also have a test there.

World Clock, Calendar & Weather


It has not only the world clock for every city but also many other features, such as calendars with festivals of most countries.


A lot of things about meteology.


Wind, weather, ocean conditions.


Air condition around the world.



The most popular language learning community by now. It also pushes helpful articles written by teachers.


It is surely a miscellany, and it is a good miscellany.

Go to r/languagelearning or r/linguistics to enjoy.


The design of the webpages is old-fashioned but it has a lot of content, including little tests.

Its French version has something more.


There are some rare features of it, such as Wiki lessons, Events. It adopts ISO 639-3, almost every language is included here.

Questions & Answers

Ask and answer with people around the world. Unfortunately, don't expect them to be effective in dealing with spamming and abusing. But I'm not encouraging you to do so.

Search before you ask.

Do not feed the trolls.

Do not answer blanked homework questions, because the questioner is too lazy to deserve an answer.

Do not answer the meaning of a single word. The questioners should consult a dictionary on their own. Exceptions are newbies, because they may be just following the tutorial and have a try, not lazy.

Do not ask questions in English channels, because the questions are too many, the answer rate is extremely low. Try asking at Polyglot Club.

Ask in parallel text. Then the respondent won't need to ask you about the real meaning if the sentence is not understood.

One of the most popular Q&A site.

Language Exchange


An app for talking with people who are as nervous to talk with strangers like you.


Free users can be contacted by those who have paid. Since they have paid, they are more likely to be serious learners.


Things about language learning. It is active.

There are periodically good contents being presented.

Languages are fewer than Transparent's, and so do the update frequency. But its quality is still high.

Blogs about cultures. There are also magazines.



See lyrics and translations.


Lyrics and translations.



One of the most popular subtitle sites. Subtitles in European languages are easier to find.


One of the most popular subtitle sites. Subtitles in English, Arabic, Persian, Indonesian are easier to find.


For downloading subtitles. You can add websites on your own. It is open-source.


It can help to merge two subtitles. It may crash at the second time. It is open-source.


If Dualsub can't run since the second time, you can try this player, which can display two subtitles. It is open-source.

What a good name of this program.


Turn subtitles into flashcards. It is open-source.

A video about it.

Radio & Podcast


A list of internet radio stations. You can find other projects (some are open-source) such as its official RadioDroid to listen to them.


Search Engine of podcasts.


Podcast player for Android. It is open-source.


A wierd site. You can click on the image and go to its Google App Store page. It has all useful functions for listening to podcasts.


Podcasts in some countries.

TV Channel


The most complete list of worldwide online TV channels.

Many links are dead, but the live stream is still available somewhere else in many of these sites.

This site is not serious on national flags at all.


List of TV channels.



It reveals how media around the world report about the world.


Links to news websites.

Some TV have shows for free, some of which even with subtitles.

Instant news about hot spots from social media.



No one can be richer in content than this. Heavy censorship, demonetization, weird copyright terms.

There are some open-source alternatives to it such as PeerTube.

There are many channels teaching languages and introducing cultures, which people may forget. However, YouTube is not the only source of such channels.


Watch YouTube videos without being watched by YouTube on Android. It is open-source.

Downloading YouTube videos violates YouTube's terms of service. What a great move of grabbing your videos and claiming them as their properties.


Watch YouTube videos privately on desktop. It is open-source.

Download videos with Python commands. It is open-source.

A tutorial about it.



There are players speaking different languages. Its “IRL” section is people in real life. You can interact with them in their languages.

Language Information

It provides information about basic knowledge of many languages. Many “Alphabet and Pronunciation” lessons on this site are from there.

Information of languages of the world. Not only languages, but also many varieties. It is open-soruce.

Information of scripts.

Linguistic maps.

Basic information of languages of the world. It may be not free in some regions.

General knowledge about European languages.

Codes for every language and is still being updated. You can find the whole table.

General Knowledge

A comprehensive encyclopedia.



It resolves the exotic sense. If you are careful enough, you can find trivia about a place.

From the maps you can only see the appearance, not inside the societies. Actually, people in somewhere looks rich maybe not so happy as people in somewhere looks poor.


Another map site. You can even download them. It is open-source.

There is a video about its modification with Inkscape.

Offline maps from OpenStreetMap. It is open-source.


Downloadable maps. It even includes cities. I don't expect them to be up-to-date.

Guess where you are in a random Google Maps street view.

Culture & Travel

Introductions to cultures.

Introduction of the city and many details of countries. It is open-source.

The most important page for travelers is this.

Its information is old. There are details of peoples and countries.

It is mainly about some details about manners.

It is mainly about some details about manners.

Subcultures, modern things.

Detailed information about health.

Cultural heritages. There is also an interactive map.

Intangible cultural heritages.

Cultural Objects.

Guide of traveling cities.

A formal publication of basic information about countries.

Introduction of countries and other things with links.

Links to other sites about cultures.


Texts are detailed for each item.

Looks old-fashioned, but it is not bad if you get used to it.

An app about major events of history.

It shows you some old news with detailed maps.

Maps of history.

Items in the history.

It looks cool.

Map of every year.

A popular history book by an amateur historian called Herbert George Wells.

If he were a professional historian, he would not have written it, together with many other nice books.

Philosophy & Religion

Links to resources.

List of religions and spiritual traditions.

Not believing a religion itself is also religious.

The basics of philosophy, “by a layman for the layman”.

Facts about religions.


Links to resources.


Videos about world geography.

Short articles.


Flags, capitals, currencies, some landmarks, in multiple languages. Dependencies included are not many.


An app for practising world map in several languages. Dependencies are not all included. The form of address in Chinese version is a mixture of PRC's and ROC's, which is not good. For Chinese names of countries, go to Language/Mandarin-chinese/Vocabulary/Countries-and-Nationalities.

Learn Geography on Linux. Information is outdated, though it's still being maintained. It is open-source.

I am thinking about creating my own fork.

National anthems. This is more complete than Wikimedia.



All about traditional music.


Recognize music with recording or your humming. It has some advantages over Shazam.


Recognize music with recording. It has some advantages over Soundhound.



All kinds of artwork around the world.



Dances by origin. You can search for them on video sites.



Recipes around the world.


List of cuisines.

Folk Costume


List of folk costume.


Some faire tales.

Some fairy tale books.



Not complete, but still good.

It includes more countries than the one above. I wonder if it is so difficult to gather information about festivals.



Find the meanings of a given name.

Don't expect you can understand every Chinese name.


You can see the sky in different locations and times. There are starlores in different cultures. Some even have constellation art.

Living Standard

Living information.

Prices from the world. Sometimes inaccurate.

The prices of the same products in different regions.


All kinds of statistical data. Some are free.

It has detailed explanation on each data.

A research program by the World Bank. There is an article on Wikipedia about it.

Trivia Quizzes

Trivia quizzes of the world. It is available in multiple languages.

Prepaid SIM Card

Details about SIM cards.

License Plate


Take a look if you are interested. It's so completed.



It presents a lot of fonts in one art style. It is open-source.


No one covers more of the Unicode map than GNU Unifont. It is open-source, no need to say because the name has “GNU”.

Its function is limited, such as bad support for South and Southeast Asian characters.


You can go to its “stuff” and search by Unicode characters.

Speech Recognition

Speech recognition with JavaScript.

A video about it.

Speech recognition with Python.

A video about it on Windows; a video about it on Linux.

Optical Character Recognition

It recognizes characters on the screen with Tesseract. Training is required.

A video about training.

Language Identifier


It identifies languages.

Resource Links

Unlike this page, those are for some specific languages, and I am not responsible for their qualities.

This one is in a great quantity that even GrimPixel's resource pages can hardly match.

This one has a lot of languages.

A comprehensive resource database.

This one has various references.

This one has more languages with fewer links for each one.

This one focuses on ancient languages.

Free media resources.

This one includes recommendations that are not free-of-charge without notice.

Repository for language researching.

Academic software. You may wonder why academicians are so dumb at design. That is because they are not so good at front-end and they don't have to learn much of it.

Web Page Archive

Archive of the Internet since 1996. Really cool!

Examples: De Agostini 5 Language Visual Dictionary (practical) and The Firefly Five Language Visual Dictionary (comprehensive).

Virtual Private Network


Those who are hindered from accessing the world Internet, send an e-mail to it.

Endangered Language Protection

If you are capable and responsible, please do your part to protect endangered languages.

Volunteering for Language Learning

If they are willing to learn a language to make a decent life, they deserve to be respected.


Resources should possess at least one of the following characteristics:

  1. be rich in free content (not just a trial or not fulfilling the need in the free part), and the free content is mostly accurate, and the free content is not all covered by other free ones;
  2. be made with a unique good idea;
  3. has no better alternatives.

Resources with the following features will be given a little priority:

  1. available offline;
  2. available on multiple platforms;
  3. multilingual user interface;
  4. open source;
  5. privacy-friendly (including “registration not required”).

-- AUTHOR --