French Language French Grammar: «Nouns»

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A noun is a word representing a person, a place or a thing. In French, all nouns have a gender masculine or feminine.

In this lesson, we will explain how to form the masculine, feminine and plural of nouns.


Masculine

Feminine

un ami (a friend)

une amie (a friend)

un acteur (an actor)

une actrice (an actress)

un musicien (a musician)

une musicienne (a musician)

un boulanger (a baker)

une boulangère (a baker)

le détective (the detective)

la détective (the detective)

le professeur (the professor)

la professeur (the professor)

In French the masculine and feminine nouns differ. different articles and adjectives are also used.

Countries ending in "-e" are feminine (except "le Mexique") : - le Portugal, le Brésil... - la France, l'Espagne, l'Argentine...

The feminine is generally formed by adding -e to the male, and in some cases other letters or accents are added.

Sometimes, there are different nouns for male and female forms. Some professions are used only in men :

Examples[edit | edit source]

Singular

Plural

le château (castle)

les châteaux (castles)

le cheval (horse)

les chevaux (horses)

le bus (the bus)

les bus (buses)

le nez (nose)

les nez (noses)

les gens (people)

Noun singular and plural[edit | edit source]

un livre (a book) des livres (books)

The plural is generally formed by adding -s to the singular.

Some nouns have special plural, according to the termination: -eau becomes -eaux -al becomes -aux -s remains the same -s -z remains the same -z

Some nouns have no singular form

Examples[edit | edit source]

Singular

Plural

le château (castle)

les châteaux (castles)

le cheval (horse)

les chevaux (horses)

le bus (the bus)

les bus (buses)

le nez (nose)

les nez (noses)

les gens (people)

Adjectives and nouns:Table of the masculine and feminine endings:[edit | edit source]

Adjectives Masculine + E = Feminine Il est étudiant

(He is a student)

Elle est étudiante

(She is a student)

Il est grand

(He is tall)

Elle est grande

(She is tall)

Le ciel est bleu

(The sky is blue)

La mer est bleue

(The sea is blue)

Adjectives -EN becomes -ENNE Il est italien

(He is italian)

Elle est italienne

(She is italian)

Il est parisien

(He is parisian)

Elle est parisienne

(She is parisian)

Il est canadien

(He is canadian)

Elle est canadienne

(She is canadian)

Il est européen

(He is european)

Elle est européenne

(She is european)

Adjectives -ON becomes -ONNE Il est bon en sport

(He is good at sport)

Elle est bonne en sport

(He is good at sport)

Adjectives -ER- ÈRE Il est boulanger

(He is a baker)

Elle est boulangère

(She is a baker)

Il est boucher

(He is a butcher)

Elle est bouchère

(She is a butcher)

Il est policier

(He is a policeman)

Elle est policière

(She is a police officer)

Adjectives -EUR and -EUX become -EUSE Il est heureux

(He is happy)

Elle est heureuse

(She is happy)

Il est furieux

(He is furious)

Elle est furieuse

(She is furious)

Il est danseur

(He is a dancer)

Elle est danseuse

(She is a dancer)

Adjectives -TEUR becomes -TRICE Il est acteur

(He is an actor)

Elle est actrice

(She is an actress)

Il est instituteur

(He is primary school teacher)

Elle est institutrice

(She is primary school teacher)

Il est traducteur

(He is a translator)

Elle est traductrice

(She is a translator)

Irregular Adjectives Beau (Beautiful) Belle
Vieux (Old) Vieille
Blanc (White) Blanche
Gentil (Kind/Nice) Gentille
Adjectives and nouns which never change Adjectives Nouns
Jeune (Young); Calme (Quiet); Drôle (Funny); Stupide (Stupid); Bizarre/Étrange (Strange); Sage (Wise); Triste (Sad) Un(e) journaliste (A journalist); Un(e) peintre (A painter); Un(e) ministre (A minister); Un(e) maire (A mayor); Un(e) pompier (A fireman); Un(e) juge (A judge); Un(e) sage-femme (A midwife); Un(e) militaire (A serviceman/servicewoman); Un(e) gendarme (A gendarme = police officer [other branch of the french police and army]); Un(e) médecin (General practitioner GP); Un(e) dentiste (A dentist); Un(e) psychologue (A psychologist); Un(e) gynécologue (A gynaecologist); Un(e) scientifique (A scientist); Un(e) astronaute (An astronaut); Un(e) archéologue (An archaeologist) ................

Contributors

Vincent and Annelise97

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