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Bulgarian Grammar - Plurals

Hi Bulgarian learners! 😊

In this lesson, we will be focusing on plural forms in Bulgarian.

Plurals are an essential part of any language, and Bulgarian is no exception. In Bulgarian, like in English, plurals are used to refer to more than one person, place, or thing. However, in Bulgarian, plural forms are used more frequently than in English, especially with countable nouns.

      1. Plural Forms of Nouns

To form the plural in Bulgarian, there are two groups of nouns to keep in mind:

        1. Group 1: Regular Plurals

Most Bulgarian nouns follow the same rules for forming plurals as English nouns. To form the plural of a Bulgarian noun, you need to add the suffix "-ове" (-ove), "-еве" (-eve), or "-ета" (-eta) to the end of the singular form of the noun.

| Bulgarian | Pronunciation | English | | --- | --- | --- | | стол | stol | chair | | столове | stolove | chairs | | маса | masa | table | | маси | masi | tables | | планина | planina | mountain | | планини | planini | mountains |

As you can see, the suffix you use depends on the gender of the noun. In Bulgarian, there are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. So, you need to know the gender of the noun to form the plural correctly.

        1. Group 2: Irregular Plurals

There is another group of Bulgarian nouns that have completely irregular plural forms. Here are some examples:

| Bulgarian | Pronunciation | English | | --- | --- | --- | | крава | krava | cow | | крави | kravi | cows | | дете | dete | child | | деца | detsa | children | | зъб | zab | tooth | | зъби | zabi | teeth |

As you can see, these plural forms are significantly different from the singular forms, so they need to be memorized.

      1. Plural Forms of Adjectives

In Bulgarian, adjectives can also have plural forms to match the noun they modify. To form the plural of an adjective, you need to add the same suffix as the one you added to form the plural of the noun it modifies (-ове, -еве, -ета). Let's look at some examples:

| Bulgarian | Pronunciation | English | | --- | --- | --- | | голям | golyam | big | | големи | golemi | big (pl.) | | малък | malyk | small | | малки | malki | small (pl.) | | красив | krasiv | beautiful | | красиви | krasivi | beautiful (pl.) |

      1. Plural Forms of Verbs

In Bulgarian, verbs also have plural forms that agree with the subjects of the sentences. To form the plural of a verb, you usually need to add the suffix "-тe" or "-ат" to the first person singular form of the verb. Here's an example using the verb "говоря" (govorya), which means "I speak":

| Bulgarian | Pronunciation | English | | --- | --- | --- | | говоря | govorya | I speak | | говорим | govorim | We speak | | говорите | govorite | You speak | | говорят | govoryat | They speak |

      1. Dialogue

To help you learn Bulgarian plurals in context, here's a dialogue between two friends:

  • Person 1: Има ли някакви кечета тук? (Ima li nyakakvi ketcheta tuk?) - (Are there any kittens here?)
  • Person 2: Да, има две кечета. (Da, ima dve ketcheta.) - (Yes, there are two kittens.)
      1. Cultural Insight

Bulgarian culture is rich and diverse, with a long and fascinating history. One particularly interesting Bulgarian tradition is "Martenitsa".

"Martenitsa" is a Bulgarian custom related to the arrival of spring, celebrated on 1 March. On that day, Bulgarians give one another small adornments made of red and white woolen threads, called "martenitsi". The tradition is an old pagan one and is believed to bring health, good fortune, and happiness. According to the tradition, the wearer of the "martenitsa" is supposed to wear it until he or she sees a stork or a blossoming tree. After that, the "martenitsa" is removed and put under a rock.

      1. Conclusion

Congratulations! You now have a better understanding of Bulgarian plurals. Remember, like any language, Bulgarian takes practice to learn, so don't be afraid to make mistakes. To improve your Bulgarian grammar, you can also use the Polyglot Club website. Find native speakers and ask them any questions! Keep practicing and you'll master Bulgarian plurals in no time. 🎉

➡ If you have any questions, please ask them in the comments section below.
➡ Feel free to edit this wiki page if you think it can be improved. 😎

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