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Vowels[edit | edit source]

Bashkort has nine native vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning. Two additional vowel phonemes occur only in loanwords. There is a contrast between unrounded and rounded front and back vowels. Rounded vowels are produced with rounded protruding lips. All mid vowels in the language are reduced. All word-initial vowels are preceded by a glottal stop /ʔ/, i.e., a glottal catch that occurs in English in such words as uh-oh. There is no standardized system for transliterating Bashkir using the Latin alphabet.

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Close-mid e ø o
Open æ a
  • /i/ = ee in beet
  • /e/ = e in bait
  • /y/ = second vowel in statue
  • /ø/ has no equivalent in English
  • /æ/ = a in bat
  • /ɯ/ has no equivalent in English
  • /u/ = oo in boot
  • /o/ = o in bow 

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bashkort has 28 consonant phonemes, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning. Some of them occur exclusively in Russian loanwords.

Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stops voiceless p t k q ʔ
voiced b d g
Fricatives voiceless f θ s ʃ x h
voiced v ð z ʒ ɣ
Affricates voiceless (ts)
Nasals m n ŋ
Tap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w z z j z z
  • /q/ has no equivalent in English
  • /ʔ/ = glottal catch between syllables in uh-oh
  • /x, ɣ/ have no equivalents in English
  • /θ/ = th in thin
  • /ð/ = th in those
  • /ʃ/ = sh in shop
  • /ʒ/ = s in measure
  • /tʃ/ = ch in chop
  • /ŋ/ = ng in song
  • /j/ = y in yet
  • /j̃/ has no equivalent in English 

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress in Bashkort words is normally placed on the final syllable of the word. The placement of the original stress in loanwords is usually preserved.

Sounds table[edit | edit source]

Letter Name IPA
А а а [ɑ], [a]
Б б бэ [b]
В в вэ [w], [v]
Г г гэ [ɡ]
Ғ ғ ғы [ʁ]
Д д дэ [d]
Ҙ ҙ ҙ [ð]
Е е йе [e], [je], [jɪ̞], [ɪ̞]
Ё ё йо [jo]
Ж ж жэ [ʒ]
З з зэ [z]
И и и [i]
Й й ҡыҫҡа и [j]
К к ка [k]
Ҡ ҡ ҡы [q]
Л л эль [l]
М м эм [m]
Н н эн [n]
Ң ң эң [ŋ]
О о о [o]
Ө ө ө [ø]
П п пэ [p]
Р р эр [r]
С с эс [s]
Ҫ ҫ ҫэ [θ]
Т т тэ [t]
У у у [u], [w]
Ү ү ү [y]
Ф ф эф [f]
Х х ха [χ]
Һ һ һа [h]
Ц ц цэ [t͡s]
Ч ч чэ [tɕ]
Ш ш ша [ʂ]
Щ щ ща [ɕ]
Ъ ъ ҡатылыҡ билдәһе
Ы ы ы [ɯ], [ɨ]
Ь ь йомшаҡлыҡ билдәһе [ʲ]
Э э э [ɪ̞], [e]
Ә ә ә [æ]
Ю ю йу [ju]
Я я йа [jɑ], [ja]

Bashkir Keyboard[edit | edit source]

Video: the Sounds of the Bashkir Language[edit | edit source]

Sources[edit | edit source]


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