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Tosk Albanian Grammar - Nouns

Hi Tosk Albanian learners! 😊
In this lesson, we will dive into the world of nouns in Tosk Albanian grammar. You will learn everything you need to know about gender, cases, and plural forms. We will also provide you with some interesting information about the cultural significance of certain nouns in Albanian. Let's get started!

With the completion of this lesson, consider investigating these related pages: Future Tense, Gender, Time and Dates & Give your Opinion.

Gender[edit | edit source]

In Tosk Albanian, as in many other languages, nouns have a gender. Unlike in English, where only people and animals have a gender, in Tosk Albanian, inanimate objects also have a gender. There are two genders in Tosk Albanian: masculine and feminine. Every noun belongs to one of these two genders.

In general, most nouns that end in -ë are feminine, while most nouns that end in a consonant are masculine. However, there are many exceptions to this rule, so it's important to memorize the gender of each noun.


Tosk Albanian Pronunciation English
mali /ma:li/ mountain (masculine)
deti /dɛti/ sea (masculine)
shkolla /ʃkɔlla/ school (feminine)
qyteti /cɛ:ti/ city (masculine)

Cases[edit | edit source]

In Tosk Albanian, cases are used to show the function of a noun within a sentence. There are five cases in Tosk Albanian: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative.

-The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence.

-The genitive case is used to indicate possession.

-The dative case is used for the indirect object.

-The accusative case is used for the direct object.

-The ablative case is used to indicate motion away from a place.


Tosk Albanian Pronunciation English
Në krye të malit /nə krjɛ tə ma:lit/ On top of the mountain
Shtëpia e babait /ʃtəpi:a ɛ babajt/ The house of father (Literally, The father's house)
Dative: Unë ia dhashë librin motrës /unə ja das̪ə librin mɔtrəs/ I gave the book to the sister
Accusative: Këshilla e mamit /kəʃilla ɛ mamit/ The advice of mom
Ablative: Shkova larg nga Tirana /ʃkova larg ndʒa tirana/ I went far from Tirana

Plurals[edit | edit source]

In Tosk Albanian, there are several ways to form the plural of a noun. It is important to note that not all nouns follow the same pattern in the plural form, so it is necessary to memorize the plural form for each noun.

Many nouns form the plural by adding -ra or -a at the end. Nouns that end in -ë often change the vowel sound in the plural form, for example, albanë (Albanian woman) becomes shqiptare (Albanian women).


Tosk Albanian Pronunciation English
Libër /libər/ Book
Libra /libra/ Books
Vajzë /vajzə/ Girl
Vajza /vajza/ Girls
Shqiptar /ʃcipˈtaɾ/ Albanian (man)
Shqiptarë /ʃcipˈtaɾə/ Albanians (men)

Cultural Significance[edit | edit source]

The Albanian language carries a strong sense of cultural identity and pride. It is an important part of Albanian culture and has played a significant role in the country's history. Many Albanians believe that the language is an essential part of their national identity, representing their unity and strength as a people.

Nouns related to family, such as "mëmë" (mother) and "babë" (father), hold a special significance in Albanian culture. Family is highly valued in Albania, and the terms used to refer to family members carry a deep sense of respect and loyalty. The language reflects this sentiment by providing different words for different types of family members (e.g., "gjysh" for grandfather and "mbësa" for grandson).

In addition, noun forms in Albanian often reflect the country's geography and history. For example, the word "kështjella" (castle) is a common noun in Albanian, reflecting the country's rich history of castles and fortresses. Similarly, the noun "bjeshkët" (mountains) is often used in Albanian poetry and literature, paying homage to Albania's rugged terrain and natural beauty.

Dialogue[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Hej, si quhet ky objekt në gjuhën shqipe? (/hɛj si ˈt͡ʃu.hɛt ki ɔbjɛkt nə ɟuhən ˈʃcipɛ/ - Hey, what do you call this object in the Albanian language?)
  • Person 2: Ky është një copë letre. (/ci: əshtə ɲə ˈt͡sɔ.p ˈlɛ.tɾɛ/ - This is a piece of paper.)
  • Person 1: Ah, faleminderit! Unë kam harruar se si thuhet në gjuhën shqipe. (/ aχ falɛmindeɾit/ - Oh, thank you! I forgot how to say it in Albanian)
  • Person 2: Asnjëherë mos harroni se si thuhet një fjalë në gjuhën shqipe! (/ɑs.'nje.hə.ɾə mɔs ha.'rɔ.ni sɛ si 't͡hu.hɛt njə fjɑ.lə nə 'ɟuhən ˈʃcipɛ/- Never forget how to say a word in the Albanian language!)

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