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< Language‎ | Mandarin-chinese‎ | Vocabulary
Revision as of 14:05, 19 June 2019 by Vincent (talk | contribs)
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Hello Mandarin Chinese learners!


In this lesson of Mandarin Chinese, we will learn to describe the arrangement of things, especially in a room and in relation to each other.


Vocabulary

Word Pinyin Translation
裡/里 lǐ  inside
wài outside
shàng in this lesson: high; above; over
xià in this lesson: low; below; under
中間/中间 zhōngjiān between; among
房間/房间 fángjiān bedroom; room (of a dwelling)
桌子 zhuōzi table; office
椅子 yǐzi chair
書架/书架 shūjià library (furniture); bookshelf
櫃子/柜子 guìzi cabinet
電腦/电脑 diànnǎo computer
手機/手机 shǒujī cellphone
黑板 hēibǎn blackboard
qiáng wall
dōu all; each
漢語/汉语 hànyǔ Chinese language
法語/法语 fǎyǔ French language

classifiers

Word Pinyin Translation
(classifier for chairs and some objects that fit in the hand)
(classifier for small devices, representations, projections, written works, ...)
臺/台 tái (classifier for big machines: computer, television, ...)
塊/块 kuài (classifier for bulks)

Additional words

Reminder: To a word designating a place / places, we add a rental suffix like 边 <bian>, then becomes a locative (equivalent to an adverb of place):

Word Pinyin Translation
裡邊/里边 lǐbian inside
外邊/外边 wàibian outside
上邊/上边 shàngbian up; above
下邊/下边 xiàbian down; below

Grammar

Indicate the disposition with the verb "to have" 有 <yǒu>

In order to indicate the existence of something in one place in Chinese, we use the following sentence structure:

Location / Direction + 有 + Object

  • 裡邊 有 一 把 椅子。 / 里边 有 一 把 椅子。 ‹ Lǐbiān yǒu yī bǎ yǐzi. ›
Inside, there is a chair.
  • 右邊 有 一 個 櫃子。 / 右边 有 一 个 柜子。 ‹ Yòubiān yǒu yī gè guìzi. ›
On the right, there is a wardrobe.

Location of one thing over another with 上 <shàng>, 下 <xià>, 裡/里 <lǐ> and 邊/边 <bian>

In order to specify the exact location of something in relation to something else in Chinese, we also use the suffixes 上 <shàng> ("on ..."), 下 <xià> ("under .. . "), 裡/里 <lǐ> (" in ... ") and 邊/边 <bian> (" side ...; to ... "), placed after the place (and not before as in French). The locatives thus created - and that can be used as object or subject in a sentence - are useful to specify, as in French, that something is for example "on the table", "in the room", "under the bed ", etc.

Location + 上/下/里/边

  • 房間 裡 / 房间 里 ‹ fángjiān lǐ ›
inside the room
  • 桌子 上 ‹ zhuōzi shàng ›
on the desk
WARNING: You can not place a rental suffix after a country name, town or more generally, behind a proper name.

Using the adverb "all" 都 <dōu>

When 都 <dōu> is used as an adverb, as for all adverbs in Chinese, it is placed between the subject and the verbal sentence.

Subject + 都 + Verb + Object.

  • 書 都 在 書架 上。 / 书 都 在 书架上。 ‹ Shū dōu zài shūjià shàng. ›
The books are all on the bookshelf.

Text

  • 這是大衛的房間。/这是大卫的房间。 ‹ Zhè shì Dàwèi de fángjiān. ›
  • 房間裡有一張床,一張桌子,三把椅子,一個櫃子和一個書架。 / 房间里有一张床,一张桌子,三把椅子,一个柜子和一个书架。 ‹ Fángjiān li yǒu yī zhāng chuáng, yī zhāng zhuōzi, sān bǎ yǐzi, yī gè guìzi hé yī gè shūjià. ›
  • 大衛的櫃子在左邊,他的書架在右邊。 / 大卫的柜子在左边,他的书架在右边。 ‹ Dàwèi de guìzi zài zuǒbiān, tā de shūjià zài yòubiān. ›
  • 桌子在書架的旁邊。 / 桌子在书架的旁边。 ‹ Zhuōzi zài shūjià de pángbiān. ›
  • 桌子上有一臺電腦、一部手機和四支筆。 / 桌子上有一台电脑、一部手机和四支笔。 ‹ Zhuōzi shàng yǒu yī tái diànnǎo, yī bù shǒujī hé sì zhī bǐ. ›
  • 墙上有一塊黑板和一張法國地圖。 / 墙上有一块黑板和一张法国地图。 ‹ Qiáng shàng yǒu yī kuài hēibǎn hé yī zhāng fàguó dìtú. ›
  • 大衛的書呢?都在書架上。詞典在上邊,法語書在下邊,漢語書都在中間。 / 大卫的书呢?都在书架上。词典在上边,法语书在下边,汉语书都在中间。 ‹ Dàwèi de shū ne? Dōu zài shūjià shàng. Cídiǎn zài shàngbian, fǎyǔ shū zài xiàbian, hànyǔ shū dōu zài zhōngjiān. ›

Translation :

  • This is David's room.
  • In the bedroom there is a bed, a desk, three chairs, a wardrobe and a bookshelf.
  • David's wardrobe is on the left, his bookshelf is on the right.
  • The desk is next to the shelf.
  • On the desk there is a computer, a cell phone and four pencils.
  • On the wall, there is a blackboard and a map of France.
  • And David's books? (They are) All on the book shelf. The dictionaries are at the top, the French books at the bottom, and the Chinese books are all in the middle.

Sources

https://chine.in/mandarin/methode/index.php?lecon=12

Contributors

Vincent, Ian megill and GrimPixel

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