# Language/Standard-latvian/Vocabulary/Numbers-and-time

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## Introduction[edit | edit source]

In this lesson, we will delve into the fascinating world of numbers and time in Standard Latvian. Numbers and time are essential aspects of daily life and routines, and mastering them will greatly enhance your ability to communicate and navigate in Latvian-speaking environments. Whether you're counting, telling the time, or discussing schedules, this lesson will equip you with the vocabulary and grammar necessary to confidently handle these situations.

We will start by learning the cardinal numbers, which are used to count and quantify objects or people. Then, we will explore the ordinal numbers, which are used to indicate the order or position of something in a series. Finally, we will tackle the topic of telling time, including both the formal and informal ways to express it.

Throughout the lesson, we will provide numerous examples to illustrate each point, ensuring that you grasp the concepts thoroughly. Additionally, we will uncover any regional variations in the usage or understanding of numbers and time, shedding light on the cultural context in which these concepts are embedded. Get ready for an engaging and comprehensive lesson that will take you one step closer to becoming fluent in Standard Latvian!

## Cardinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

### Counting from 0 to 10[edit | edit source]

Let's start by learning the basic numbers from 0 to 10 in Standard Latvian:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

nulle | [ˈnul.lɛ] | zero |

viens | [viɛns] | one |

divi | [ˈdi.vi] | two |

trīs | [triːs] | three |

četri | [ˈt͡ʃɛt.ri] | four |

pieci | [ˈpiɛ.t͡si] | five |

seši | [ˈsɛ.ʃi] | six |

septiņi | [ˈsɛp.tiɲ.i] | seven |

astoņi | [ˈas.toɲ.i] | eight |

deviņi | [ˈdɛ.viɲ.i] | nine |

desmit | [ˈdɛs.mit] | ten |

Take your time to practice pronouncing these numbers, as correct pronunciation is crucial for effective communication. Notice that the pronunciation may vary slightly depending on the speaker, but the general pattern remains the same.

### Counting from 11 to 20[edit | edit source]

To count from 11 to 20, we use a combination of the word "desmit" (ten) and the numbers from 1 to 9. Here are the numbers from 11 to 20 in Standard Latvian:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

vienpadsmit | [viɛnˈpad.smit] | eleven |

divpadsmit | [ˈdi.vpad.smit] | twelve |

trīspadsmit | [triːsˈpad.smit] | thirteen |

četrpadsmit | [ˈt͡ʃɛt.rpad.smit] | fourteen |

piecpadsmit | [ˈpiɛt͡spad.smit] | fifteen |

sešpadsmit | [ˈsɛʃ.pad.smit] | sixteen |

septiņpadsmit | [ˈsɛp.tiɲ.pad.smit] | seventeen |

astoņpadsmit | [ˈas.ton.pad.smit] | eighteen |

deviņpadsmit | [ˈdɛ.viɲ.pad.smit] | nineteen |

divdesmit | [ˈdi.vdɛs.mit] | twenty |

Notice that the numbers from 11 to 19 are formed by adding the suffix "-padsmit" to the corresponding number from 1 to 9. However, the number 10 is expressed with the standalone word "desmit". Once you have memorized these numbers, you will be able to count up to 20 in Latvian!

### Counting by Tens[edit | edit source]

To count by tens in Standard Latvian, we use a similar pattern as in English. Here are the tens from 30 to 100:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

trīsdesmit | [triːsˈdɛs.mit] | thirty |

četrdesmit | [ˈt͡ʃɛt.rˌdɛs.mit] | forty |

piecdesmit | [ˈpiɛt͡sˌdɛs.mit] | fifty |

sešdesmit | [ˈsɛʃˌdɛs.mit] | sixty |

septiņdesmit | [ˈsɛp.tiɲˌdɛs.mit] | seventy |

astoņdesmit | [ˈas.tonˌdɛs.mit] | eighty |

deviņdesmit | [ˈdɛ.viɲˌdɛs.mit] | ninety |

simts | [siːmts] | one hundred |

Notice that the numbers from 30 to 90 are formed by adding the suffix "-desmit" to the corresponding number from 3 to 9. The number 100 is expressed by the standalone word "simts".

### Counting beyond 100[edit | edit source]

Once you have mastered the numbers from 0 to 100, counting beyond 100 becomes relatively straightforward. Here are some examples to help you practice:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

simts viens | [siːmts viɛns] | one hundred one |

divi simti trīsdesmit | [ˈdi.vi siːm.ti triːsˈdɛs.mit] | two hundred thirty |

četri simti piecdesmit septiņi | [ˈt͡ʃɛt.ri siːm.ti ˈpiɛt͡sˌdɛs.mit ˈsɛp.tiɲ.i] | four hundred fifty-seven |

pieci simti sešdesmit astoņi | [ˈpiɛt͡si siːm.ti ˈsɛʃˌdɛs.mit ˈas.tonˌdɛs.mit] | five hundred sixty-eight |

deviņi simti deviņdesmit deviņi | [ˈdɛ.viɲ.i siːm.ti ˈdɛ.viɲˌdɛs.mit ˈdɛ.viɲ.i] | nine hundred ninety-nine |

tūkstoš | [ˈtuːk.stoʃ] | one thousand |

divi tūkstoši pieci simti divdesmit trīs | [ˈdi.vi ˈtuːk.stoʃi ˈpiɛt͡si siːm.ti ˈdi.vdɛs.mit triːs] | two thousand five hundred twenty-three |

miljons | [ˈmil.jons] | one million |

As you can see, the pattern for counting beyond 100 follows the same structure as in English. You simply combine the relevant numbers and units (hundred, thousand, million) to express larger quantities.

## Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

### Forming Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

Ordinal numbers are used to indicate the order or position of something in a series. In Standard Latvian, ordinal numbers are formed by adding the suffix "-tais" or "-tā" to the cardinal number. Here are the ordinal numbers from 1st to 10th:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

pirmais | [ˈpiɾ.mɑjs] | first |

otrais | [ˈot.ɾɑjs] | second |

trešais | [ˈtɾɛ.ʃɑjs] | third |

ceturtais | [ˈt͡sɛu̯ɾ.tɑjs] | fourth |

piektais | [ˈpiɛktɑjs] | fifth |

sestais | [ˈsɛs.tɑjs] | sixth |

septītais | [ˈsɛp.tiːtɑjs] | seventh |

astotais | [ˈɑs.to.tɑjs] | eighth |

devītais | [ˈdɛ.viːtɑjs] | ninth |

desmitais | [ˈdɛs.mi.tɑjs] | tenth |

Notice that the suffix "-tais" is used for masculine nouns and the suffix "-tā" is used for feminine nouns. The ordinal numbers agree in gender with the noun they modify.

### Exceptions in Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

While forming ordinal numbers is generally straightforward, there are a few exceptions to be aware of. Here are some irregular ordinal numbers that do not follow the usual pattern:

Standard Latvian | Pronunciation | English Translation |
---|---|---|

pirmkārt | [ˈpiɾm.kɑːrt] | first (when referring to a sequence) |

pēdējais | [ˈpeː.deː.jɑjs] | last |

vienpadsmitais | [viɛnˈpɑds.mi.tɑjs] | eleventh |

divpadsmitais | [ˈdi.vpɑds.mi.tɑjs] | twelfth |

simtais | [ˈsim.tɑjs] | hundredth |

As you can see, these exceptions have their own unique forms and cannot be derived from the cardinal numbers.

### Using Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

Ordinal numbers are commonly used in various contexts, such as indicating dates, ranks, or positions. Here are some examples:

- Pirmais janvāris - "January first" (1st of January)
- Otrais stāsts - "second story" (second floor)
- Trešais mājasdarbs - "third homework assignment"
- Ceturtais pulciņš - "fourth club" (fourth place in a competition)
- Piektais laiks - "fifth time" (fifth attempt)

Remember that ordinal numbers agree in gender with the noun they modify, so make sure to match the gender correctly.

## Telling Time[edit | edit source]

### The 24-Hour Clock[edit | edit source]

When telling time in Standard Latvian, the 24-hour clock is commonly used. This means that the day is divided into 24 hours, with each hour represented by a number from 0 to 23. To express the time, we use the word "stunda" (hour) followed by the hour and minute. Here are some examples:

- Ir divpadsmit stunda - "It is twelve o'clock" (12:00)
- Ir divpadsmit stunda septiņpadsmit minūtes - "It is twelve seventeen" (12:17)
- Ir piecdesmit trīs stunda piecdesmit deviņas minūtes - "It is fifty-three fifty-nine" (23:59)

When minutes are mentioned, we use the word "minūte" (minute) in its plural form. Notice that minutes are stated after the hour, separated by the word "minūtes".

### The 12-Hour Clock[edit | edit source]

While the 24-hour clock is the standard in Latvia, it is also common to use the 12-hour clock, especially in informal settings or when referring to specific times of the day. To express time in the 12-hour clock, we use the words "no rīta" (in the morning), "pēcpusdienā" (in the afternoon), "vakarā" (in the evening), or "naktī" (at night) followed by the hour and minute. Here are some examples:

- Ir piecas no rīta - "It is five in the morning" (5:00 AM)
- Ir divas pēcpusdienā - "It is two in the afternoon" (2:00 PM)
- Ir septiņas vakarā piecpadsmit minūtes - "It is seven fifteen in the evening" (7:15 PM)
- Ir deviņas naktī trīsdesmit viena minūte - "It is nine thirty-one at night" (9:31 PM)

When minutes are mentioned, we use the word "minūte" (minute) in its singular form. Notice that minutes are stated after the hour, separated by the word "minūte".

### Asking for the Time[edit | edit source]

To ask for the time in Standard Latvian, you can use the following phrases:

- Cik ir pulkstenis? - "What time is it?"
- Kurš ir laiks? - "What time is it?"
- Kāds ir pulkstenis? - "What time is it?"

These phrases are used in both formal and informal situations. Remember to use the appropriate form of "būt" (to be) when responding to these questions.

## Cultural Insights[edit | edit source]

In Latvian culture, punctuality is highly valued. Latvians are known for being conscientious about time and expect others to be as well. Arriving late to an appointment or a social gathering without a valid reason is considered disrespectful. Therefore, it is important to be mindful of the time and make an effort to be punctual when interacting with Latvian speakers.

Another cultural aspect related to time is the celebration of Name Days (Vārda dienas) in Latvia. In addition to birthdays, Latvians also celebrate their Name Days, which are associated with specific names. Each day of the year is assigned one or more names, and individuals who bear those names celebrate their Name Day on that particular day. Name Days are considered important occasions and are often celebrated with family and friends.

## Exercises[edit | edit source]

Now it's time to practice what you've learned! Complete the following exercises to reinforce your understanding of numbers and time in Standard Latvian.

### Exercise 1: Cardinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following numbers in Standard Latvian:

a) 15 b) 29 c) 46 d) 83 e) 99

2. Translate the following numbers into English:

a) 12 b) 37 c) 51 d) 68 e) 75

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct cardinal numbers:

a) ___ stunda ir? (What time is it?) b) Ir ___ pulkstenis. (It is one o'clock.) c) ___ minūtes ir pagājušas. (Thirty minutes have passed.)

### Exercise 2: Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following ordinal numbers in Standard Latvian:

a) 3rd b) 9th c) 14th d) 27th e) 50th

2. Translate the following ordinal numbers into English:

a) 5th b) 11th c) 19th d) 23rd e) 30th

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct ordinal numbers:

a) Tas ir ___ stāvs. (It is the second floor.) b) Viņš ir ___ vietā. (He is in the third place.) c) Mēs svinam ___ gadadienu. (We are celebrating the tenth anniversary.)

### Exercise 3: Telling Time[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following times in Standard Latvian (24-hour clock):

a) 9:45 AM b) 6:30 PM c) 11:20 PM d) 4:15 AM e) 1:55 PM

2. Translate the following times into English (12-hour clock):

a) 17:30 b) 8:45 c) 2:10 d) 12:00 e) 19:20

3. Answer the following questions in Standard Latvian:

a) Cik ir pulkstenis? (What time is it?) b) Kurš ir laiks? (What time is it?) c) Kāds ir pulkstenis? (What time is it?)

## Solutions[edit | edit source]

### Exercise 1: Cardinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following numbers in Standard Latvian:

a) 15 - piecpadsmit b) 29 - divdesmit deviņi c) 46 - četrdesmit seši d) 83 - astoņdesmit trīs e) 99 - deviņdesmit deviņi

2. Translate the following numbers into English:

a) 12 - twelve b) 37 - thirty-seven c) 51 - fifty-one d) 68 - sixty-eight e) 75 - seventy-five

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct cardinal numbers:

a) Cik stunda ir? (What time is it?) b) Ir viena pulkstenis. (It is one o'clock.) c) Trīsdesmit minūtes ir pagājušas. (Thirty minutes have passed.)

### Exercise 2: Ordinal Numbers[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following ordinal numbers in Standard Latvian:

a) 3rd - trešais b) 9th - devītais c) 14th - četrpadsmitais d) 27th - divdesmit septītais e) 50th - piecdesmitais

2. Translate the following ordinal numbers into English:

a) 5th - fifth b) 11th - eleventh c) 19th - nineteenth d) 23rd - twenty-third e) 30th - thirtieth

3. Fill in the blanks with the correct ordinal numbers:

a) Tas ir otrais stāvs. (It is the second floor.) b) Viņš ir trešajā vietā. (He is in the third place.) c) Mēs svinam desmito gadadienu. (We are celebrating the tenth anniversary.)

### Exercise 3: Telling Time[edit | edit source]

1. Write the following times in Standard Latvian (24-hour clock):

a) 9:45 AM - Deviņas četrdesmit piecas b) 6:30 PM - Astoņas trīsdesmit c) 11:20 PM - Divpadsmit stunda divdesmit minūtes d) 4:15 AM - Četras piecdesmit piecas e) 1:55 PM - Trīs stunda piecdesmit piecas

2. Translate the following times into English (12-hour clock):

a) 17:30 - 5:30 PM b) 8:45 - 8:45 AM c) 2:10 - 2:10 AM d) 12:00 - 12:00 PM e) 19:20 - 7:20 PM

3. Answer the following questions in Standard Latvian:

a) Cik ir pulkstenis? (What time is it?) - ... (provide the current time) b) Kurš ir laiks? (What time is it?) - ... (provide the current time) c) Kāds ir pulkstenis? (What time is it?) - ... (provide the current time)

## Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Congratulations! You have successfully learned the cardinal and ordinal numbers, as well as how to tell time in Standard Latvian. These skills will greatly enhance your ability to communicate and navigate in Latvian-speaking environments. Remember to practice regularly to reinforce your knowledge and develop your fluency. Keep up the great work, and continue on your journey to becoming fluent in Standard Latvian!

## Other Lessons[edit | edit source]

- Means of transport and directions
- Health
- Free time activities and sports
- Family and relationships
- Jobs and professions
- School subjects and degrees
- Days of the Week
- Drinks
- Food

◀️ Greetings and introductions — Previous Lesson | Next Lesson — Family and relationships ▶️ |