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Standard Latvian Grammar - Pronouns

Hi Standard Latvian learners! 😊
In this lesson, we will study the use of pronouns in Standard Latvian grammar. Pronouns are words that replace a person, a thing, or an idea previously mentioned in a sentence. Pronouns make it easier to avoid repeating the same noun over and over again, and they also help us avoid misunderstandings.

Consider exploring these related pages after completing this lesson: Conditional Mood, Standard Latvian Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood and Wishes, Adjectives & Latvian verb conjugation in the present tense.

Personal pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal pronouns are the most commonly used type of pronouns in Latvian. They refer to specific persons or things and depend on the noun's gender, number, and case.

Here are the personal pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Personal pronoun Pronunciation English
Es [ɛs] I
Tu [tu] You (singular)
Viņš [viɲʃ] He
Viņa [viɲa] She
Tas [tas] It
Mēs [meːs] We
Jūs [juːs] You (plural or polite singular)
Viņi/ Viņas [viɲi, viɲas] They (masculine or feminine)
Tie/ Tās [tiɛ, taːs] They (neuter)

Examples with personal pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Es neēdu sieru. (I don't eat cheese.)
  • Person 2: Tu esi vegetārietis? (Are you a vegetarian?)
  • Person 1: Viņš gribēs šokolādi. (He will want chocolate.)
  • Person 2: Viņa mīl dāvanas. (She loves presents.)
  • Person 1: Tas ir mans zirgs. (It is my horse.)
  • Person 2: Mēs ejam uz pludmali. (We are going to the beach.)
  • Person 1: Jūs varat palikt viesnīcā. (You can stay at the hotel.)
  • Person 2: Viņi ceļo uz Franciju. (They are traveling to France.)
  • Person 1: Tās ir skaistas puķes. (Those are beautiful flowers.)

Demonstrative pronouns[edit | edit source]

Demonstrative pronouns are used to point to specific things or people in a sentence. In Latvian, there are three demonstrative pronouns: "šis," "šitā," and "tas."

Here are the demonstrative pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Demonstrative pronoun Pronunciation English
Šis [ʃis] This (masculine)
Šī [ʃiː] This (feminine)
Šitā [ʃitaː] This (neuter)
Tas [tas] That (masculine, feminine or neuter)

Examples with demonstrative pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Šī ir mana mīļākā grāmata. (This is my favorite book.)
  • Person 2: Šis krekls ir par siltu. (This shirt is too warm.)
  • Person 1: Šitā ir mūsu jaunā māja. (This is our new house.)
  • Person 2: Tas ir liels koka stumbrs. (That is a big tree trunk.)

Interrogative pronouns[edit | edit source]

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions about people, things, or ideas that are not yet known. The most common interrogative pronouns in Latvian are "kas" (who), "ko" (what), and "kāds" (what kind of).

Here are the interrogative pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Interrogative pronoun Pronunciation English
Kas [kas] Who
Ko [ko] What (accusative)
Kāds [kaːds] What kind of

Examples with interrogative pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Kas ir tavs vārds? (What is your name?)
  • Person 2: Es esmu Jānis. (My name is John.)
  • Person 1: Ko tu dari? (What are you doing?)
  • Person 2: Es lasu grāmatu. (I am reading a book.)
  • Person 1: Kāds ir tavs mīļākais dzēriens? (What is your favorite drink?)
  • Person 2: Mans mīļākais dzēriens ir tēja. (My favorite drink is tea.)

Reflexive pronouns[edit | edit source]

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and the object are the same entity. In Latvian, reflexive pronouns are formed by adding "sev" or "sav" to the end of the pronoun. For example, "es" (I) becomes "sevi" (myself), and "viņa" (she) becomes "savu" (herself).

Here are the reflexive pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Reflexive pronoun Pronunciation English
Sevi [sɛvi] Myself
Tevi [tɛvi] Yourself
Viņš/Viņa [viɲʃ, viɲa] Himself/herself
Savu [savu] Themselves

Examples with reflexive pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Es sevi mīlu. (I love myself.)
  • Person 2: Tu tevi aplami. (You are lying to yourself.)
  • Person 1: Viņš sevi apsēja. (He sat down himself.)
  • Person 2: Viņa savu matu krāsoja. (She dyed her own hair.)

Possessive pronouns[edit | edit source]

Possessive pronouns indicate ownership or possession. In Latvian, possessive pronouns change depending on the noun's gender, number, and case. The endings of the pronouns are also different from the endings of the adjectives.

Here are the possessive pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Possessive pronoun Pronunciation English
Mans [mans] My (masculine)
Mana [maːna] My (feminine)
Mani [mani] My (plural or masculine)
Manas [maːnas] My (plural or feminine)
Tavs [tavs] Your (masculine)
Tava [tava] Your (feminine)
Tavi [tavi] Your (plural or masculine)
Tavas [taːvas] Your (plural or feminine)
Viņa [viɲa] His/hers (singular)
Viņu [viɲu] His/hers (plural)
Mūsu [muːsu] Our
Jūsu [juːsu] Your (polite or plural)
Viņu [viɲu] Their

Examples with possessive pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Mans suns ir ļoti draudzīgs. (My dog is very friendly.)
  • Person 2: Mana māte gatavo labu maltīti. (My mother cooks good food.)
  • Person 1: Tavs kauss ir uz galda. (Your bowl is on the table.)
  • Person 2: Tavas rokassprādzes ir skaistas. (Your bracelets are beautiful.)
  • Person 1: Viņa mājas ir lielas. (Her house is big.)
  • Person 2: Viņu mašīnas ir jaunas. (Their cars are new.)

Indefinite pronouns[edit | edit source]

Indefinite pronouns refer to people, things, or ideas in general without specifying them. In Latvian, the most common indefinite pronouns are "kāds" (someone), "nekāds" (no one), "viss" (everything), and "nekas" (nothing).

Here are the indefinite pronouns in Standard Latvian:

Indefinite pronoun Pronunciation English
Kāds [kaːds] Someone
Nekāds [nɛkaːds] No one/none
Viss [viss] Everything
Nekas [nɛkaːs] Nothing

Examples with indefinite pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Person 1: Vai kāds var man palīdzēt ar šo somu? (Can someone help me with this bag?)
  • Person 2: Nekāds problēmas! (No problem!)
  • Person 1: Viss ir gatavs. (Everything is ready.)
  • Person 2: Nekas nav palicis. (Nothing is left.)

Practice with Pronouns[edit | edit source]

To improve your [Language/Standard-latvian|Standard Latvian] [Language/Standard-latvian/Grammar|Grammar], you can also use the Polyglot Club website. Find native speakers and ask them any questions!

Sources[edit | edit source]

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