Russian Grammar: «Very important rules»
From Polyglot Club WIKI
In this lesson for beginners, we will study some Russian grammar rules as well as structures of special importance.
By studying them carefully, you will avoid many mistakes, especially when writing about the future.
Feel free to edit this page by adding new words and expressions!
Good learning! :)
- 1 Accentuation (Ударение)
- 2 Capital letters (Заглавные буквы)
- 3 Spelling: vowels Я, Ю, Ы and О
- 4 Reference
Accentuation (Ударение)[edit | edit source]
In Russian, there are no rules governing the position of the tonic accent.
That you learn Russian words, you must learn at the same time the accent of each one.
In addition, the place of the accent may change as the word changes shape, here are some examples:
- the hand: рука (singular) - руки (plural)
- leg: нога (singular) - ноги (plural)
In other cases, a change of place of the accent may change the meaning of the word.
- мука (flour) - мука (torment, torture)
- замок (the lock) - замок (the castle)
- уже (already) - уже (narrower)
Capital letters (Заглавные буквы)[edit | edit source]
Russians do not put capital letters:
to the names of days of the week and month:
- а́вгуст (August),
- вторник (Tuesday).
to words derived from proper names:
- Москва́ -> моско́вский (from Moscow, Muscovite),
- Россия -> российский (Russian, Russian).
to the words designating nationality:
- итальянец (Italian, an Italian),
- америка́нец(American, an American),
- францу́женка (The Frenchwoman, a Frenchwoman).
titles and words to address people:
- господин (Sir),
- профессор (Professor).
The only two cases where you have to use a capital letter are:
if it's the beginning of a sentence:
- "Была зима" - It was winter.
if it's a proper name:
Spelling: vowels Я, Ю, Ы and О[edit | edit source]
(Правописание: гласные Я, Ю, Ы и О)
There are three very important spelling rules in Russian. Hold them back, and you'll never have a bad time trying to write a lot of Russian words correctly.
Never write the vowels Я and Ю after the consonants Г, К, Х, Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч and Ц.[edit | edit source]
Я must be replaced by А, and Ю replaced by У.
- чашка - the cup
- шагать - walking
- птица - the bird
- восхищаться - to admire
- парашют - the parachute
- брошюра - booklet, pamphlet, brochure
After the consonants Г, К, Х, Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч (but not Ц) we never use the vowel Ы, which must be replaced by И.[edit | edit source]
- широкий - large, wide
- хороший - good
- жизнь - life
After the consonants Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч and Ц, the vowel О is replaced by Е when it is not accented.[edit | edit source]
- accented: жучок - small beetle (diminutive form)
- not emphasized: внучек - grandson (diminutive form)