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Russian Language Russian Grammar: «To and же particles in Russian»

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Hello everybody,

ТО and ЖЕ particles in Russian
ТО and ЖЕ particles in Russian

In today's lesson you will learn how to use the ¨ТО and ЖЕ particles¨ in Russian.

Feel free to edit this page by adding new words and expressions!

Good learning! :)

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If you have learned Russian for a while, you have surely encountered the particles "-to" and "же". Today, we will examine them in more detail and explain their role in the sentence.

Particle -To[edit | edit source]

The particle -to is used to emphasize the word to which it is attached (except if it is a part of indefinite pronouns like кто-то, какой-то, that we will discuss in the following lesson; do not confuse it also with demonstrative pronoun то).

Let's look at some examples and compare the meaning of the phrase with and without the particle. Keep in mind that, since there are no analogues of -o, the translations for the examples with it are quite approximate and serve mainly to demonstrate the accent.

Я всё помню, это ты забываешь.
I remember everything, it's you who forgets.
Я-то всё помню, это ты забываешь.
I do remember everything, it's you who forgets.
Погода какая дождливая последнее время.
The weather is so rainy lately.
Погода-то какая дождливая последнее время.
What a weather lately, so rainy!
Погода какая дождливая последнее-то время.
Lately, the weather is so rainy.
Как мы теперь домой попадём?
How are we going home now?
Как мы-то теперь домой попадём?
And us? How are we going home now?
Как мы теперь домой-то попадём?
And going home, how are we doing now?

The particle жe[edit | edit source]

In many cases, the particle жe does not focus on the word, but on the whole sentence, its place in the sentence does not depend on any word and can be changed without affecting the meaning.

The examples below demonstrate this:

Мы же так и не позвонили родителям!

Мы так и не позвонили родителям же!
Oh, we never called our parents!
Я же не знаю, как это делать! Я не знаю же, как это делать!
But I do not know how to do it!
Куда без шапки? Ты же уши отморозишь!

Куда без шапки? Ты уши же отморозишь!

Куда без шапки? Ты уши отморозишь же!
Where are you going without a hat? Your ears will freeze!
But there are situations where жe is used for other purposes. In these cases, you can not change the positions of жe in the sentence without affecting the meaning. Let's take a look at these:

Comparison[edit | edit source]

Ух ты, эта рыба такого же размера, как наш сын!
O-there, this fish is the same size as our son!
In a comparison like "the same as", the particle always goes after "такого": такого же цвета, такой же высоты, такой же глубины.

Opposition[edit | edit source]

Я не люблю кофе, мой муж же, напротив, пьёт его каждый день.
I do not like coffee, but my husband drinks it every day.
The particle is behind the word that serves as opposition - the husband.

Emergency[edit | edit source]

Я сделаю это сегодня же.
I will do it today.
It's going after the time indicator - today. For comparison, let's change position:

Я же сделаю это сегодня.

Я сделаю же это сегодня.
I will do it today.
In this configuration, the sentence takes the intonation of a reminder: we already agreed that I would do it today, but you seem to forget it, so I remind you.

Identification[edit | edit source]

Вчера случилось то же самое.
Yesterday the same thing happened.
Identify the demonstrative pronoun то by adding a meaning of "the same thing".

We can have the same meaning for the previous example by placing же after the demonstrative pronoun это:

Я сделаю это же сегодня.
I will do the same today.

Using both[edit | edit source]

To add the most intonation to your sentences, you can use -to and же in one sentence. Let's compare:

Да что ты делаешь?
What are you doing?
Да что же ты делаешь-то!
My god! What do you do?
Here is this lesson. As you can see, the use of particle же is not as easy to use as -to, but the good control of these particles and their correct intonation will make you a star of the language in the eyes of your Russian friends.

Examples[edit | edit source]

ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION

ENGLISH

RUSSIAN PRONUNCIATION BRAZILIAN

PORTUGUESE

BRAZILIAN

PORTUGUESE

------- ТО
I REMEMBER EVERYTHING,

IT´S YOU WHO FORGETS

yah vsyoh pahm nyoh, eh tah tuh zah buh vah ih shih Я ВСЁ ПОМНЮ, ЭТО ТЫ ЗАБЫВАЕШЬ iá vsiô pamníu, éta tâ zabâvaich EU LEMBRO DE TUDO,

É VOCÊ QUE ESQUECE

I REMEMBER EVERYTHING,

YOU FORGET IT

yah-toh vsyoh pahm nyoh, eh tah tuh zah buh vah ih shih Я-ТО ВСЁ ПОМНЮ, ЭТО ТЫ ЗАБЫВАЕШЬ iá-tô vsiô pamníu, éta tâ zabâvaich EU LEMBRO DE

TUDO, E VOCÊ

ESQUECE

THE WEATHER IS SO RAINY LATELY pah goh dah kah kah yah

dohzh dlih vah yah

pohs lyehd nee vryeh myah

ПОГОДА КАКАЯ ДОЖДЛИВАЯ ПОСЛЕДНЕЕ ВРЕМЯ pagôda kakáia dajdlívaia paslíednii

vríemia

O CLIMA TÁ MUITO

CHUVOSO ULTIMAMENTE

WHAT WEATHER LATELY, SO RAINY ! pah goh dah-toh kah kah yah dohzh dlih vah yah

pohs lyehd nee vryeh myah

ПОГОДА-ТО КАКАЯ ДОЖДЛИВАЯ ПОСЛЕДНЕЕ ВРЕМЯ pagôda-ta kakáia dajdlívaia paslíednii

vríemia

COMO TÁ O TEMPO

ULTIMAMENTE, CHUVOSO DEMAIS

HOW ARE WE GOING HOME NOW ? kahk muh tih pyehr dah moyh

pah pah dyohm ?

КАК МЫ ТЕПЕРЬ ДОМОЙ ПОПАДЁМ ? kak mâ tipíer damôi

papadíôm ?

COMO A GENTE VAI

PRA CASA AGORA ?

AND US ?

HOW ARE WE GOING HOME NOW ?

kahk muh-toh tih pyehr

dah moyh

pah pah dyohm ?

КАК МЫ-ТО ТЕПЕРЬ ДОМОЙ ПОПАДЁМ ? kak mâ-to tipíer damôi

papadíôm ?

E A GENTE ?

COMO VAMO PRA CASA AGORA ?

------- ЖЕ
OH, WE NEVER CALLED

OUR PARENTS

muh zheh tahk ih nyeh

pahs vah nih lih

rah dih tih lyahm

МЫ ЖЕ ТАК И НЕ ПОСВОНИЛИ РОДИТЕЛЯМ! mâ je tak i níe

pasvaníli raditíliam

OH, A GENTE NUNCA

LIGOU PRO SEUS PAIS

OH WE NEVER CALLED

OUR PARENTS

muh tahk ih nyeh

pahs vah nih lih

rah dih tih lyahm zheh

МЫ ТАК И НЕ ПОСВОНИЛИ

РОДИТЕЛЯМ ЖЕ!

mâ tak i níe

pasvaníli raditíliam je

OH, A GENTE NUNCA

LIGOU PRO SEUS PAIS

BUT I DON´T KNOW HOW

TO DO IT

yah zheh nyeh znah you, kahk eh tah dyeh laht Я ЖЕ НЕ ЗНАЮ, КАК ЭТО ДЕЛАТЬ! iá je níe znáiu, kak éta díelat MAS EU NÃO SEI COMO FAZER ISSO
BUT I DON´T KNOW HOW

TO DO IT

yah nyeh znah you zheh, kahk eh tah dyeh laht Я НЕ ЗНАЮ ЖЕ, КАК ЭТО ДЕЛАТЬ! iá níe znáiu je, kak éta díelat MAS EU NÃO SEI COMO FAZER ISSO
WHERE ARE YOU GOING

WITHOUT A HAT ?

YOUR EARS WILL FREEZE !

kou dah byehz shahp kih?

tuh zheh ou shih aht mah roh zihsh

КУДА БЕЗ ШАПКИ? ТЫ ЖЕ УШИ ОТМОРОЗИШЬ! kudá bíez chapki?

tâ je úchi atmarôzích

ONDE VOCÊ VAI SEM UM CHAPÉU ? SUAS ORELHAS VÃO CONGELAR
WHERE ARE YOU GOING

WITHOUT A HAT ?

YOUR EARS WILL FREEZE !

kou dah byehz shahp kih?

tuh ou shih zheh aht mah roh zihsh

КУДА БЕЗ ШАПКИ? ТЫ УШИ ЖЕ ОТМОРОЗИШЬ! kudá bíez chapki?

tâ úchi je atmarôzích

ONDE VOCÊ VAI SEM UM CHAPÉU ? SUAS ORELHAS VÃO CONGELAR
WHERE ARE YOU GOING

WITHOUT A HAT ?

YOUR EARS WILL FREEZE !

kou dah byehz shahp kih?

tuh ou shih aht mah roh zihsh zheh

КУДА БЕЗ ШАПКИ? ТЫ УШИ ОТМОРОЗИШЬ ЖЕ! kudá bíez chapki?

tâ úchi atmarôzích je

ONDE VOCÊ VAI SEM UM CHAPÉU ? SUAS ORELHAS VÃO CONGELAR

Contributors

Vincent, Mastavaya and Alex in vienna

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