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Multiple-languages Language Multiple-languages Vocabulary: «Must‐Know Words for Polyglots»

From Polyglot Club WIKI

< Language‎ | Multiple-languages‎ | Vocabulary
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Must-know words for polyglots.
Words polyglots.png

[Lesson in progress]

Polyglots are really passionate about language learning and linguistics. Therefore it's important for them to learn all kinds of terms. On this page, you will find the most important ones.

If you need a full GLOSSARY OF LINGUISTIC TERMS, see:

If you need a clear categorization of linguistics, see:

linguistics
theoretical linguistics
phonology morphology syntax sematics pragmatics
descriptive linguistics
anthropological linguistics historical linguistics phonetics etymology sociolinguistics
applied linguistics
computational linguistics neurolinguistics psycholinguistics
rhetoric orthography lexicology lexicography stylistics
semiotics
Linguistics and its best-known branches. Some are interdisciplinary.

Semiotics is not a part of linguistics, but it is closely related to linguistics.

pidgin creole variety dialect register standard language
Language and its similar words in definition.
phone
consonant
pulmonic consonant non–pulmonic consonant
ejective consonant click consonant implosive consonant
place of articulation
labial consonant
bilabial consonant
labial–velar consonant labial–coronal consonant
labiodental consonant
bidental consonant
coronal consonant
linguolabial consonant interdental consonant dental consonant denti–alveolar consonant alveolar consonant coronal–velar consonant postalveolar consonant
palato–alveolar consonant retroflex consonant
dorsal consonant
postalveolar consonant
alveolar–palatal consonant
palatal consonant
labio–palatal consonant
uvular consonant
uvular–epiglottal consonant
laryngeal consonant
pharyngeal consonant glottal consonant
peripheral consonant
manner of articulation
obstruent
stop consonant affricate consonant fricative consonant
sibilant
sonorant*
nasal consonant approximant consonant
semivowel
vibrant consonant
flap/tap consonant trill consonant
liquid consonant
rhotic consonant lateral consonant
occlusive continuant
vowel
close vowel near-close vowel close-mid vowel mid vowel open-mid vowel near-open vowel open vowel
front vowel central vowel back vowel
unrounded vowel & rounded vowel
nasal vowel nasalisation
phoneme
syllable
letter
letter case diacritic
alphabet abjad abugida syllabary semi-syllabary logogram
pictogram ideogram
International Phonetic Alphabet
There are many words in this section. If you know them all, you can understand what those words in International Phonetic Alphabet mean.

*sonorant also includes the vowel.

lemma lexeme root morpheme cognate false friend anglicism loadword
Some confusing similar words with “word”.
affix
prefix suffix infix circumfix interfix duplifix transfix simulfix suprafix disfix
An affix is usually a morpheme, which is just mentioned above.
parse tree
constituency-based parse tree dependency-based parse tree
If you understand parse trees, you can draw and learn sentence structures quickly.
function word content word
Two important concepts.
part of speech
conjunction
interjection
contraction
particle
classifier
clitic
numeral
cardinal number ordinal number multiplier distributive number nominal number
adjective
attributive adjective predicative adjective nominalized adjective
adverb
determiner
article
definite article indifinite article zero article
demonstrative determiner
possessive determiner
quantifier
adposition
preposition postposition circumposition
noun
countable noun uncountable noun
collective noun
abstract noun concrete noun
common noun proper noun
pronoun
personal pronoun
reflexive pronoun reciprocal pronoun
relative pronoun
verb
impersonal verb intransitive verb transitive verb ditransitive verb tritransitive verb
modal verb
reflexive verb
auxiliary verb
finite verb nonfinite verb
infinitive participle gerund
PoS.
phrase
adverbial phrase adjective phrase noun phrase adpositional phrase verb phrase
clause
argument clause adjuctive clause predicative clause
dependent clause independent clause
sentence
simple sentence compound sentence complex sentence compound–complex sentence
declaritive sentence interrogative sentence exclamatory sentence imperative sentence instructive sentence
major sentence minor sentence
Notice the differences between “phrase”, “clause”, “sentence”.
punctuation
comma
period
exclamation mark
question mark
colon
semicolon
quotation mark
guillemet
apostrophe
hyphen
dash
ellipsis
slash
brackets
round brackets curly brackets square brackets
interpunct
space
Punctuation. People often neglect it.
grammatical category
person
first person second person third person
subject object
predicate argument adjunct complement
valency
honorifics
gender
masculine feminine neuter
animate inanimate
case
nominative case accusative case dative case ablative case genitive case vocative case locative case instrumental case oblique case
tense
past tense present tense future tense
aspect
simple aspect progressive aspect & continous aspect perfect aspect prospective aspect
mood
realis mood
indicative mood energenic mood
irrealis mood
subjunctive mood conditional mood optative mood imperative mood interrogative mood jussive mood potential mood desiderative mood
voice
active voice passive voice
inflection
conjugation declension
comparison
positive comparative superlative
polarity
affirmation negation
number
singular plural
clusivity
animacy
telicity
serial verb construction
“Grammatical category”, you may haven't heard about it, but you know it.

An “aspect” may also be considered as a “tense”.

linguistic typology
word order
analystic language isolating language synthetic language
fusional language agglutinative language polysynthetic language
language family dialect continuum language isolate proto-language constructed language
Languages can be differentiated by its structure.
grammar
attributive adverbial copula
apposition
hyponym & hypernym
idiom
linguistic relativity
Rosetta Stone It tells us the value of parallel text.

-- AUTHOR --[edit | edit source]

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GrimPixel and Vincent

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