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Multiple-languages Language Multiple-languages Vocabulary: «Must‐Know Words for Polyglots»

From Polyglot Club WIKI

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Must-know words for polyglots.
Words polyglots.png

Mainly about linguistic terms. Also other important things.

In progress.

Remember: you don't have to memorise them all in a single time.

If you are interested in terms, see https://glossary.sil.org/term

To know a relatively clear categorization of linguistics, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_linguistics#Branches_of_linguistics

linguistics
theoretical linguistics
phonology
morphology
syntax
sematics
pragmatics
descriptive linguistics
anthropological linguistics
historical linguistics
phonetics
etymology
sociolinguistics
applied linguistics
computational linguistics
neurolinguistics
psycholinguistics
rhetoric
orthography
lexicology
lexicography
stylistics
semiotics
Linguistics and its best-known branches.

Semiotics is not a part of linguistics, but it is closely related to linguistics.

pidgin
creole
variety
dialect
register
standard language
Language and its similar words in definition.
phone
consonant
pulmonic consonant
non–pulmonic consonant
ejective consonant
click consonant
implosive consonant
place of articulation
labial consonant
bilabial consonant
labial–velar consonant
labial–coronal consonant
labiodental consonant
bidental consonant
coronal consonant
linguolabial consonant
interdental consonant
dental consonant
denti–alveolar consonant
alveolar consonant
coronal–velar consonant
postalveolar consonant
palato–alveolar consonant
retroflex consonant
dorsal consonant
postalveolar consonant
alveolar–palatal consonant
palatal consonant
labio–palatal consonant
uvular consonant
uvular–epiglottal consonant
laryngeal consonant
pharyngeal consonant
glottal consonant
peripheral consonant
manner of articulation
obstruent
stop consonant
affricate consonant
fricative consonant
sibilant
sonorant*
nasal consonant
approximant consonant
semivowel
vibrant consonant
flap/tap consonant
trill consonant
liquid consonant
rhotic consonant
lateral consonant
occlusive
continuant
vowel
phoneme
syllable
letter
letter case
diacritic
alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
There are many words in this section. If you know them all, you can understand what those words in International Phonetic Alphabet mean.

*sonorant also includes the vowel.

lemma
lexeme
root
morpheme
cognate
false friend
anglicism
loadword
Some confusing similar words with “word”.
affix
prefix
suffix
infix
circumfix
interfix
duplifix
transfix
simulfix
suprafix
disfix
An affix is a morpheme, which is just mentioned above.
parse tree
constituency-based parse tree
dependency-based parse tree
If you understand parse trees, you can draw and learn sentence structures quickly.
function word
content word
Two important concepts.
part of speech
adverb
conjunction
interjection
contraction
particle
classifier
clitic
numeral
cardinal number
ordinal number
multiplier
distributive number
nominal number
adjective
attributive adjective
predicative adjective
nominalized adjective
determiner
article
definite article
indifinite article
zero article
demonstrative determiner
possessive determiner
quantifier
adposition
preposition
postposition
circumposition
noun
countable noun
uncountable noun
collective noun
abstract noun
concrete noun
common noun
proper noun
pronoun
personal pronoun
reflexive pronoun
reciprocal pronoun
relative pronoun
verb
impersonal verb
intransitive verb
transitive verb
ditransitive verb
tritransitive verb
modal verb
reflexive verb
auxiliary verb
finite verb
nonfinite verb
infinitive
participle
gerund
PoS.
phrase
adverbial phrase
adjective phrase
noun phrase
adposition phrase
verb phrase
clause
argument clause
adjuctive clause
predicative clause
dependent clause
independent clause
sentence
simple sentence
compound sentence
complex sentence
compound–complex sentence
declaritive sentence
interrogative sentence
exclamatory sentence
imperative sentence
instructive sentence
major sentence
minor sentence
Notice the differences between “phrase”, “clause”, “sentence”.
punctuation
comma
period
exclamation mark
question mark
colon
semicolon
quotation mark
guillemet
apostrophe
hyphen
dash
ellipsis
slash
brackets
round brackets
curly brackets
square brackets
interpunct
space
Punctuation. People often neglect it.
grammatical category
person
first person
second person
third person
subject
object
valency
honorifics
gender
masculine
feminine
neuter
animate
inanimate
case
nominative case
accusative case
dative case
ablative case
genitive case
vocative case
locative case
instrumental case
oblique case
tense
past tense
present tense
future tense
aspect
simple aspect
progressive aspect & continous aspect
perfect aspect
mood
realis mood
indicative mood
energenic mood
irrealis mood
subjunctive mood
conditional mood
optative mood
imperative mood
interrogative mood
jussive mood
potential mood
desiderative mood
voice
active voice
passive voice
inflection
conjugation
declension
comparison
positive
comparative
superlative
polarity
affirmation
negation
number
singular
plural
clusivity
animacy
telicity
serial verb construction
“Grammatical category”, you may haven't heard about it, but you know it.

An “aspect” may be considered as “tense”.

linguistic typology
word order
analystic language
isolating language
synthetic language
fusional language
agglutinative language
polysynthetic language
Languages can be differentiated by its structure.
grammar
predicate
complement
attributive
adverbial
copula
apposition
hyponym & hypernym
idiom
linguistic relativity
Rosetta Stone It tells us the value to write parallel text.

-- AUTHOR --[edit | edit source]

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