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Multiple-languages Language Multiple-languages Culture: «Language answers»

From Polyglot Club WIKI

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If you have learned some languages, you will want to ask a question like this: what can I do to express something in this language.

Different languages have different answers.

This lesson is far from being completed.

Note: every “word” is in nominative case.

How to indicate the speaker?[edit | edit source]

By the first-person singular pronoun.

Are there different first-person singular pronouns for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Amharic እኔ
Arabic أَنَا‎‎
Basque ni
Bengali আমি
English I
French je
German ich
Hausa ni
Hebrew אֲנִי
Hindi मैं; हम
Italian io
Javanese aku
Kabyle nekk
Kannada ನಾನು
Malayalam ഞാന്
Mandarin Chinese
Marathi मी
Mon အဲ
Portuguese eu
Punjabi ਮੈਂ
Russian я
Spanish yo
Swahili mimi
Tamil நான்
Telugu నేను
Tigrinya ኣነ
Turkish ben
Urdu ہم; میں

2. Yes.

language word note
Burmese ကျွန်တော်; ကျွန်မ; ငါ; ကျုပ် formal, male; formal, female; informal; more polite
Indonesian saya; aku formal; informal
Japanese 私(わたし); 私(わたくし); 僕; あたし; 俺 common; formal; informal; female; male
Khmer ខ្ញុំ; ខ្ញុំបាទ; នាងខ្; ខ្ញុំព្រះករុណា; ខ្ញុំព្រះអង្គ; ខ្ញុំម្ចាស់ common; formal, male; formal, female; royalty; royalty, male; royalty, female
Korean 나; 저 common; formal
Malay saya; aku; daku; hamba; patik; beta formal; informal; poetic; lowest social strata; facing royalties; royalties
Thai ผม; ดิฉัน; ฉัน; กระหม่อม; ข้าพเจ้า; หนู; กู male; female; informal; more formal; more formal; child to adult; crude
Tsafiki la; čiʰké; če adult male; adult female; immature
Vietnamese tôi; tớ; ta; mình common; informal; informal; intimate

How to indicate the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the second-person singular pronoun.

Are there different second-person singular pronouns for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
English you
Esperanto vi
Malayalam നീ
Mon ဗှ်ေ
Swahili wewe
Tibetan ཁྱེད་རང
Vietnamese bạn

2. Yes.

language word note
Amharic አንተ; አንቺ; እርስዎ to male; to female; formal
Arabic أَنْتَ‎‎ ; أَنْتِ‎‎ ; حَضْرَتَك‎‎ ; حَضْرَتِك‎‎ to male; to female; to male, formal; to female, formal
Bengali তুই; তুমি; আপনি informal; intimate; formal
Burmese နင်; မင်း; ခင်ဗျား; ရှင် informal; informal; formal, by male; formal, by female
French tu; vous informal; formal
German du; Sie informal; formal
Hebrew אַתָּה; אַתְּ‎‎ to male; to female
Hindi तू; तुम; आप informal; polite; more polite
Italian tu; lei informal; formal
Japanese 貴方; 君; お前; あんた; てまえ; 貴様 polite; familiar; intimate or rude; by female or by older male; vulgar, by male; insulting
Khmer លោក; លោកស្រី; នាងស្រី; អ្នក to male or Buddhist monk; to older female; to younger female; common
Korean 당신; 너; 네; 자네 common; informal; informal; to low social strata
Malay kamu; awak; anda; dikau; engkau common; informal; formal; poetic; poetic, informal
Mandarin Chinese 你; 您 informal; formal
Portuguese tu; você familiar in Portugal, rarely used in Brazil; polite in Portugal, general in Brazil
Russian ты; Вы; вы familiar; polite; polite
Spanish tú; usted; vos familiar; polite; familiar
Tamil நீ; நீங்கள்; தாங்கள் familiar; polite; more polite
Telugu నీవు; మీరు familiar; polite
Thai คุณ; เธอ; มึง; เอ็ง; ท่าน; นาย; หล่อน; เรา; โยม; ประสก; สีกา colloquial; polite; vulgar, familiar; less vulgar, familiar; colloquial; colloquial, to male; colloquial, to female; elder to younger; vulgar; priest to layperson; priest to layman; priest to laywoman
Tigrinya ንስኻ; ንስኺ; ንስኹም; ንስኽን informal, to male; informal, to female; formal, to male; formal, to female
Turkish sen; siz familiar; polite
Urdu آپ‎‎; تم‎‎; تو‎‎ formal; less informal; informal
Yoruba ìwọ; ệyin informal; formal

How to indicate a person being neither the speaker nor the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the third-person singular pronoun.

Are there different third-person singular pronouns for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Hindi वह; यह
Persian او
Turkish o
Urdu وہ‎‎; يہ‎
Yue Chinese

2. Yes.

language word note
Amharic እሱ; እሷ; እሳቸው male or non-human; female; polite
Arabic هُوَ; هِيَ‎‎ male or masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human
Burmese သူ; သူမ male or colloquial female or non-human; formal female
English he; she; it male; female; non-human
French il; elle; ce; ça male or masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human; non-human; non-human
German er; sie; es male or masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human; neuter non-human
Hebrew הוא; היא; זֶה; זֹאת male; female; masculine non-human; feminine non-human
Italian lui; lei; esso; essa; egli; ella male; female; masculine non-human; feminine non-human; male, literary; female, literary
Japanese 彼; 彼女 male; female
Kannada ಇವನು; ಇವ; ಅವನು; ಅವ; ಇವಳು; ಅವಳು; ಇದು; ಅದು this male; this male; that male; that male; this female; that female; this non-human; that non-human
Khmer គាត់; គេ; នាង; វា polite; polite, male or female; referring to a younger woman; non-human or referring to young children or people of lower rank
Korean 그; 그이; 그녀 male or female; polite, male; female
Malay dia; ia; baginda; beliau male or female; male or female or non-human; for kings, queens and Muslim prophets; for notable people
Mandarin Chinese 他; 她; 它 male; female; non-human
Portuguese ele; ela male or masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human
Russian он; она́; оно́ male of masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human; neuter non-human
Spanish él; ella; ello male or masculine non-human; female or feminine non-human; neuter non-human
Tigrinya ንሱ; ንሳ male or non-human; female
Vietnamese anh ấy; ông ấy; chị ấy; cô ấy; bà ấy; hắn; nó young male; older or respected male; young female or older than the speaker; young female; older or respected female; informal or pejorative; child or non-human

How to indicate non-human in languages without third-person non-human pronoun?[edit | edit source]

By demonstrative pronouns.

language word note
Japanese それ thing near the listener
Korean 그것 thing near the listener

How to indicate people including the speaker and excluding the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the first-person plural pronoun (exclusive “we”).

Are there different first-person plural pronouns (exclusive “we”) for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Amharic እኛ
Arabic نَحْنُ‎‎
Basque gu
Bengali আমরা
English we
German wir
Hausa múu
Hindi हम
Italian noi
Kannada ನಾವು
Khmer យើង
Malay kami
Mandarin Chinese 我們/我们
Mon ပိုဲ
Russian мы
Swahili sisi
Tamil நாங்கள்
Telugu మేము
Tigrinya ንሕና
Turkish biz
Urdu ہم‎‎
Vietnamese chúng ta

2. Yes.

language word note
Bislama mitufala; mitrifala; mifala dual; trial; plural*
Burmese ကျုပ်တို့; တို့; ကျွန်တော်တို့; ကျွန်မတို့; ငါတို့ informal; informal; formal, by male; formal, by female; informal
French nous; on formal; informal
Hawaiian māua; mākou dual; plural*
Hebrew אֲנַחְנוּ; אָנוּ formal; informal
Japanese 私達; 僕ら; 僕達; 我ら common; informal, humble; informal; formal, rarely used
Korean 우리; 저희 common; humble
Maori māua; mātou dual; plural*
Northern Sami moai; mii dual; plural*
Old Church Slavonic вѣ; мꙑ dual; plural*
Portuguese nós; a gente common; informal
Rapa Nui maua; matou dual; plural*
Spanish nosotros; nosotras masculine; feminine
Tok Pisin mitupela; mitripela; mipela dual; trial; plural*

*“plural” in these languages means more than two or more than three.

How to indicate people excluding the speaker and including the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the second-person plural pronoun.

Are there different second-person plural pronouns for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Amharic እናንተ
English you
French vous
Icelandic þið
Mandarin Chinese 你們/你们
Malay kalian
Modern Greek εσείς
Pashto تاسې‎
Persian شما‎
Russian вы
Swahili ninyi
Ukrainian ви
Yue Chinese 你哋
Zulu nina

2. Yes.

language word note
Arabic أَنْتُمَا; أَنْتُم; أَنْتُنَّ‎; حَضْرَتْكُم common gender, dual; masculine, plural; feminine, plural; formal
Aramaic ܐܢܬܘܢ/אנתון‎; אנתין‎/ܐܢܬܝܢ‎ masculine; feminine
Bengali তোরা; তোমরা; আপনারা; তোমরা familiar; very familiar; polite; polite
Burmese နင်တို့; နင်တို့; ရှင်တို့ to younger people; polite, by male; polite, by female
Danish I; De familiar; polite
German ihr; Sie familiar; polite
Hawaiian ʻolua; ʻoukou dual; plural
Hebrew אֲתֶּם‎; אֲתֶּן‎ masculine; feminine
Hindi तुम; आप mid-polite; polite
Hungarian ti; önök familiar; polite
Japanese 貴方達; 貴方方; お前達; 君達; 貴様等 generic; honorific; slightly rude; intimate or toward subordinates; highly insulting
Korean 너희; 여러분; 너희; 당신들; 이놈들; 니네; 니들; 자네들 generic, discourteous if used for a superior; honorific; slightly rude; slightly rude; highly insulting; very familiar; very familiar; intimate toward subordinates
Kyrgyz силер; сиздер familiar; polite

How to indicate people including the speaker and the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the first-person plural pronoun (inclusive “we”).

Are there different first-person plural pronouns (inclusive “we”) for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Arabic نَحْنُ‎‎
French nous
Malay kita
Portuguese nós
Telugu మనము

2. Yes.

language word note

How to indicate people excluding the speaker and the listener?[edit | edit source]

By the third-person plural pronoun.

Are there different third-person plural pronouns for different use?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
Danish de
English they
German sie
Hungarian ők
Malay mereka
Rapa Nui raua
Russian они́
Swahili wao
Tok Pisin ol
Vietnamese họ

2. Yes.

language word note
Dalmatian jali; jale masculine; feminine
Faroese teir; tær; tey masculine; feminine; neuter
Galician elos; elas masculine; feminine
Hebrew הֵם‎; הֵן‎ masculine; feminine
Icelandic þeir; þær; þau masculine; feminine; neuter
Korean 그들; 그녀들 common; female
Modern Greek αυτοί; αυτές; αυτά masculine; feminine; neuter
Scottish Gaelic iad; iadsan common; emphatic
Slovak oni; ony masculine; feminine or neuter
Slovene ôni; ône; ôna masculine; feminine; neuter
Spanish ellos; ellas masculine; feminine

Are “exclusive we” and “inclusive we” different words?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

language word note
English we
Finnish me
German wir
Mandarin Chinese 我們/我们

2. Yes.

language word note
Bislama yumitu; yumitri; yumi; mitufala; mitrifala; mifala inclusive dual; inclusive trial; inclusive plural; exclusive dual; exclusive trial; exclusive plural
Hawaiian kāua; kākou; māua; mākou inclusive dual; inclusive plural; exclusive dual; exclusive plural
Vietnamese chúng ta; chúng tôi inclusive; exclusive

Is there any plural form the same as or similar to the polite singular form?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

2. Yes.

language word note
Bashkir һеҙ second-person plural, second-person singular polite
Estonian teie / te second-person plural, second-person singular polite
French vous second-person plural, second-person (singular or plural) polite
German sie; Sie third-person plural; second-person singular polite
Hindi वे third-person plural, third-person singular polite
Latvian jūs second-person plural, second-person (singular or plural) polite
Lithuanian jūs second-person plural, second-person singular polite
Mongolian та second-person plural, second-person singular polite

Is there any pronoun the same as or similar to a determiner?[edit | edit source]

1. No.

2. Yes.

language word note
Danish de third-person plural nominative pronoun, plural demonstrative pronoun or plural definite article
Kannada ಅವರು; ಅವುಗಳು; ಅವು masculine or feminine plural personal pronoun or demonstrative pronoun; neuter plural personal pronoun or demonstrative pronoun; neuter plural personal pronoun or demonstrative pronoun
Modern Greek αυτοί; αυτές; αυτά third-person masculine plural personal pronoun or determiner; third-person feminine plural personal pronoun or determiner; third-person neuter plural personal pronoun or determiner
Norwegian de third-person plural nominative pronoun, plural demonstrative pronoun or plural definite article

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