French Grammar: «Negations»
In this article you will discover how to form negation in French. Feel free to directly edit this page if you think it can be improved.
- 1 General Structure
- 2 Negation with verbs and pronouns
- 3 Examples
- 4 VIDEOS
General Structure[edit | edit source]
In French, the general structure of Negation is simply to "encircle" the verb with two particles:
"NE" (or "N’", if the verb begins with a vowel) and "PAS":
- Il connaît le pays → Il ne connaît pas le pays
He knows the country → He does not know the country
SUBJECT + " NE (N’)" + VERB + "PAS" + COMPLEMENT
Il ne connaît pas le pays
Following this general scheme, in French there are several kinds of denial, each with a different structure:
"Ne" + "PAS" : no (generally)[edit | edit source]
Je ne comprends pas. (I do not understand)
"Ne" + "PLUS" : no more, anymore, no longer[edit | edit source]
- Nous n’avons plus de café = we have no more coffee
- Je ne parle plus = I do not speak anymore
- Il ne fume plus = He no longer smokes
"Ne" + "RIEN" : anything[edit | edit source]
- Je ne dis rien = I do not say anything
"Ne" + "PERSONNE" : nobody, anybody[edit | edit source]
- Il n’y a personne = There is nobody
- Je ne vois personne = I do not see anybody
"Ne" + "JAMAIS" : never[edit | edit source]
- Nous n’allons jamais à la mer = We never go to the sea
"Ne" + "AUCUN/E": any[edit | edit source]
- Je n’ai aucune idée = I do not have any idea
"Ne" + "QUE"[edit | edit source]
This structure is not really a negation, but rather a restriction. It is equivalent to "only".
- Je ne dors que cing heures = I only sleep 5 hours
- Ça ne coûte que cent euros = This costs no more than 100 euros
Negation with verbs and pronouns[edit | edit source]
Componds verbs[edit | edit source]
When we have to use negation with a compund verb (compound means having auxiliary and participle), negation "surrounds" the auxiliary, not the participle.
- Vous avez parlé en allemand → Vous pas n'avez parlé in allemand
(You have spoken in German) → (You have not spoken in German)
- J’ai dit la vérité → Je n’ai rien dit.
(I have said the truth) → (I have not said the truth)
Thus, the structure to remember is:
SUBJECT + "NE (N’)" + AUXILIARY+ "PAS" + PARTICIPLE + COMPLEMENT
Vous + n’+ avez + pas + parlé + allemand
Negation of pronominal verbs[edit | edit source]
When we have in the phrase pronouns, we must remember the 2nd most important French rule:
"The pronoun goes before the verb, and as close to it as possible."
We will apply this rule, thinking that the first term of negation ("NE") will be first in the order of the sentence, and then go the pronoun before the verb, and then finally the "PAS".
An example with a pronominal verb, which are the ones with reflexive pronouns:
- Je m’appelle Antoine → Je ne m’appelle pas Antoine
(My name is Antoine) → (My name is not Antoine)
SUBJECT + "NE" + ("ME, TE...") + VERB + "PAS" + COMPLEMENT
Je + ne + m’ + appelle + pas + Antoine
Examples[edit | edit source]
- Je ne veux pas partir = I don't want to leave.
Ne becomes n' before a vowel.
- Il n'a pas perdu son sac = He has not lost his bag
Placing ne pas before an infinitive negates it.
- Le pire est de ne pas essayer = The worst is not to try
VIDEOS[edit | edit source]
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