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Bashkir Grammar - Adjectives

Hi Bashkir learners! 😊
In this lesson, we will learn about adjectives in Bashkir. Adjectives are words used to describe or modify nouns. They can indicate a quality, size, color or any other characteristic of a noun.

Take some time to dive into these other pages after completing this lesson: How to Use "Have", Give your Opinion & Future Tense.

Types of Adjectives[edit | edit source]

There are two types of adjectives in Bashkir:

Attributive Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Attributive adjectives come before nouns and modify the noun directly. They agree with the noun in gender, number, and case. For example:

Bashkir Pronunciation English
гультәк gultäk red

- гультәк (gultäk), meaning "red," modifies the noun it describes directly:

  • ҡуш (quş) – bird
  • гультәк ҡуш (gultäk quş) – red bird

In this example, гультәк (gultäk) is an attributive adjective because it comes before the noun and describes it directly.

Predicative Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Predicative adjectives come after the noun and relate to it through a linking verb. They do not agree in gender, number, or case with the noun. For example:

Bashkir Pronunciation English
кар kar white

- кар (kar), meaning "white," relates to the noun through a linking verb:

  • мәйдан (mäydan) – field
  • мәйдан кар (mäydan kar) – field is white

In this example, кар (kar) is a predicative adjective because it comes after the noun and relates to it through a linking verb.

Adjective Agreement[edit | edit source]

In Bashkir, adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number, and case. For example:

Bashkir Pronunciation English
йөрәк yörek small

- йөрәк (yörek), meaning "small," agrees with the noun it describes in gender, number, and case:

  • кот (kot) – cat
  • йөрәк кот (yörek kot) – small cat

If the noun is feminine, the adjective endings change:

  • һатын (hatın) – housewife
  • йөрәк һатын (yörek hatın) – small housewife

Note that the adjective йөрәк (yörek) changes its ending to agree with the noun in gender, number, and case.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives[edit | edit source]

In Bashkir, comparative and superlative adjectives are formed using the following patterns:

  • Comparative: ҡайсыса (qaysysa) + adjective + ҡаршы (qarşı) + adjective
  • Superlative: ҡайсы (qaysı) + adjective + һөйләк (höylek) + noun

For example:

  • Сагынды (Sagındı) – beautiful
  • Сагындыҡа йәңү (Sagındıqa yönu) – more beautiful
  • коттан (kottan) – cat
  • йөҙсе коттан (yödze kottan) – the smallest cat

Note that ҡайсыса (qaysysa) and ҡайсы (qaysı) are used with attributive adjectives, while һөйләк (höylek) is used with nouns.

Dialogue[edit | edit source]

To see adjectives used in context, here is a dialogue between two friends:

  • Амина (Amina): Асыҡ нара (Asıq nara) - Your new car is beautiful!
  • Руслан (Ruslan): Уҡыҙ яңа йөҙле йүрәк (Uqız yaña yödle yuräk) - It's the tiniest red car.

In this dialogue, we see the attributive adjective яңа (yaña), meaning "new," and the predicative adjective йөҙле (yödle), meaning "tiny."

Practice Exercises[edit | edit source]

Now that you have learned about Bashkir adjectives, it's time to practice! Here are some exercises to help you master adjective agreement:

1. Translate the following sentences into Bashkir:

  • The black cat is big.
  • The white house is small.
  • My old computer is slow.

2. Change the following adjectives from positive to comparative:

  • тиҙ (tið, fast)
  • ирсәк (irseḵ, tall)
  • әлә (älä, good)

3. Change the following adjectives from positive to superlative:

  • яхшы (yaxşı, good)
  • урта (urta, average)
  • кечмиш (keçmiş, past)

💡 Don't forget to use Find native speakers and ask them any questions about Bashkir adjectives to improve your understanding of the language!

➡ If you have any questions, please ask them in the comments section below.
➡ Feel free to edit this wiki page if you think it can be improved. 😎

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